Sunday, April 11, 2010

Youth exposure to explicit film violence and sex is linked to adverse health outcomes and is a serious public health concern. "JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH"


युवा स्पष्ट फिल्म हिंसा और सेक्स के लिए जोखिम स्वास्थ्य के प्रतिकूल परिणामों से जुड़ा हुआ है और एक गंभीर जन स्वास्थ्य चिंता का विषय है. अमेरिका की युवा (हानिकारक सामग्री के लिए जोखिम को कम करने में MPAA) दर्ज़ा सिस्टम प्रभावशीलता पर सवाल उठाया गया है की मोशन पिक्चर एसोसिएशन.
Молодежь воздействия откровенного насилия и секса фильм связан с неблагоприятными последствиями для здоровья и является серьезной проблемой общественного здравоохранения. Киноассоциации Америки (эффективность) MPAA в рейтинговой системы в сокращении молодежи воздействия вредного содержания была поставлена под сомнение.
Qīng shàonián jiēchù bàolì hé sèqíng diànyǐng míngquè de shì yǔ bùliáng jiànkāng jiéguǒ, shì yīgè yánzhòng de gōnggòng jiànkāng wèntí. Měiguó diànyǐng xiéhuì dì měiguó (měiguó diànyǐng xiéhuì) de píngjí tǐxì de yǒuxiào xìng jiǎnshǎo qīng shàonián jiēchù dào yǒuhài de nèiróng shòudào le zhíyí.
Exposición de los jóvenes a la violencia y el sexo explícito en películas está vinculada a los resultados adversos para la salud y es un grave problema de salud pública. La Motion Picture Association of America (eficacia) del sistema de clasificación de la MPAA en la reducción de exposición de los jóvenes a contenidos nocivos ha sido cuestionada.

The Effectiveness of the Motion Picture Association of America's Rating System in Screening Explicit Violence and Sex in Top-ranked Movies From 1950 to 2006

Priya G. Nalkur, Ed.D., M.P.H., Patrick E. Jamieson, Ph.D., Daniel Romer, Ph.D.
Articles in Press
The Effectiveness of the Motion Picture Association of America's Rating System in Screening Explicit Violence and Sex in Top-ranked Movies From 1950 to 2006
Priya G. Nalkur, Ed.D., M.P.H., Patrick E. Jamieson, Ph.D., Daniel Romer, Ph.D.
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Received 13 October 2009; accepted 22 January 2010. published online 02 April 2010.
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Abstract

Youth exposure to explicit film violence and sex is linked to adverse health outcomes and is a serious public health concern. The Motion Picture Association of America's (MPAA's) rating system's effectiveness in reducing youth exposure to harmful content has been questioned.
Purpose
To determine the MPAA's rating system's effectiveness in screening explicit violence and sex since the system's initiation (1968) and the introduction of the PG-13 category (1984). Also, to examine evidence of less restrictive ratings over time (“ratings creep”).
Design
Top-grossing movies from 1950 to 2006 (N = 855) were coded for explicitness of violent and sexual content. Trends in rating assignments and in the content of different rating categories since 1968 were assessed.
Results
The explicitness of violent and sexual content significantly increased following the rating system's initiation. The system did not differentiate violent content as well as sexual content, and ratings creep was only evident for violent films. Explicit violence in R-rated films increased, while films that would previously have been rated R were increasingly assigned to PG-13. This pattern was not evident for sex; only R-rated films exhibited higher levels of explicit sex compared to preratings period.
Conclusions
While relatively effective for screening explicit sex, the rating system has allowed increasingly violent content into PG-13 films, thereby increasing youth access to more harmful content. Assignment of films in the current rating system should be more sensitive to the link between violent media exposure and youth violence.
Keywords: MPAA, Movie ratings, Content analysis, Media violence, Media sex
Annenberg Public Policy Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Address correspondence to: Daniel Romer, Ph.D., Adolescent Risk Communication Institute, Annenberg Public Policy Center, University of Pennsylvania, 202 S. 36th Street, Philadelphia PA 19104-3806.
PII: S1054-139X(10)00079-0
doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2010.01.019

Editorial Board

Editor-in-Chief:


Charles E. Irwin, Jr., MD


University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA


Associate Editors:


Richard F. Catalano PhD, University of Washington, School of Social Work, Social Development Research Group, Seattle, WA, USA


P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale PhD, Northwestern University, School of Education and Social Policy; and Institute for Policy Research, Evanston, IL, USA


Pierre-Andre Michaud MD, University of Lausanne, Faculty of Medicine, Lausanne, Switzerland


Donald P. Orr MD, Indiana University, School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA


Freya L. Sonenstein PhD, John Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
Immediate Past Editor-in-Chief:


Iris F. Litt MD, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA
Founding Editor:


H. Verdain Barnes MD, Eatonton, GA, USA
Managing Editor:


Tor D. Berg, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA


Editorial Board:


Emma K. Adam MA, PhD, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA


Linda Holm Bearinger PhD, MS, RN, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA


David A. Brent MD, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA


Claire D. Brindis Dr.P.H., University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA


Jane D. Brown PhD, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC


Venkatraman Chandra-Mouli MBBS, MSc, The World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland


Norman A. Constantine PhD, Public Health Institute, Oakland, CA, USA


Denise M. Dougherty PhD, Agency for Health Care Research and Quality, Rockville, MD, USA


Carol A. Ford MD, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA


J. Dennis Fortenberry MD, MS, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA


Elizabeth Goodman MD, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA


Julia A. Graber PhD, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA


Bonnie Halpern-Felsher PhD, University of California, San Francisco, CA


Debra K. Katzman MD, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada


Jonathan D. Klein MD, MPH, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA


Matilde H. Maddaleno MD, MPH, Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC, USA


Lawrence C. Neinstein MD, University of Southern California, Los Angelels, CA, USA


Susan F. Newcomer PhD, National Institute Child Health & Development, Bethesda, MD


Lucia F. O'Sullivan PhD, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, Canada


George Patton MD, MBBS, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia


Vaughn I. Rickert PsyD, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA


Elizabeth M. Saewyc PhD, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada


John S. Santelli MD, MPH, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA


Mark A. Schuster MD, PhD, Children's Hospital Boston/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA


Mary Ann Shafer MD, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA


Gail B. Slap MD, MS, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA


Mary Story PhD, RD, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA


Brian L. Wilcox PhD, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE, USA


James Herbert Williams PhD, University of Denver, Denver, CO


Elizabeth R. Woods MD, MPH, Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
© 2010 Society for Adolescent Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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