Monday, March 8, 2010

South American cities are physically moved from place after the earthquake in Chile, according to Ohio State University.Shakes the entire planet.NASA.


This view of Earth comes from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer aboard the Terra satellite.



ATENCION: El sistema basico de GPS o posicion global por el sistema de satelite que tiene uso para la poblacion en automoviles fue usado para detectar fuera de su sitio original a ciudades sudamericanas.

Aqui vemos el sistema de satelites GPS que detectan cualquier movimiento de la tierra, no solo para autos.
Ciudades sudamericanas se movieron fisicamente de lugar despues del terremoto de Chile segun Ohio State University.
Nánměi chéngshì yǐjīng cóng dìfāng shíjì dìzhèn hòu, zài zhìlì, jù měiguó éhàié zhōulì dàxué.
Южноамериканских городов физически переезжал с места после землетрясения в Чили, по данным Университета штата Огайо.
Cidades sul-americanas são movidos fisicamente de um lugar depois do terremoto no Chile, de acordo com a Ohio State University.
Les villes sud-américaines sont physiquement déplacé d'un endroit, après le tremblement de terre au Chili, en fonction de l'Ohio State University
A sud le città americane sono materialmente spostati dal luogo dopo il terremoto in Cile, in base alla Ohio State University.
minami amerika no toshi no butsuri teki basho kara chiri de no jishin no nochi , ohaio shūritsu daigaku ni yoru to , idō sa re masu .  



ATENCION ESTE ES EL MAPA ORIGINAL DEL GPS: Ciudades sudamericanas que se movieron de su sitio despues del terremoto de Chile.(Tomado de "Discovery News")
Image shows a map of the preliminary recorded movement readings of city displacement caused by the 8.8-magnitude quake, based on the team's GPS measurements. Map produced by Project CAP.South American Cities Moved in Chile Quake
By Lauren Effron

Mon Mar 8, 2010 06:24 PM ET

With disasters striking Haiti, Chile and most recently Turkey, it seems like there is no end in sight for the earthquake-weary.


New evidence released from Ohio State University (OSU) shows that the 8.8-magnitude mega-quake that struck off the coast of Chile last month was so powerful that multiple South American cities were picked up and physically moved over from their original locations.
The effects of the temblor that struck Concepcion, Chile, were felt as far away, as Brazil and the Falkland Islands in what is believed to be the fifth largest quake ever recorded.
Here's the break down of the shake-up:
•Conception, Chile, shifted 10 feet to the west.
•Santiago, Chile’s capital, was displaced about 11 inches to the west-southwest.
•Buenos Aires, the capital of Argentina, moved about 1 inch to the west.
And Buenos Aires sits on the other side of the continent!
The cities of Valparaiso and Mendoza, Argentina, northeast of Concepcion, also showed significant movement.
So how do you measure how an entire city moves?




Researchers from four universities and several agencies -- including geophysicists on the ground in Chile -- gathered readings at 25 GPS locator stations set up prior to the major quake and then compared them to readings taken 10 days later to come up with their preliminary numbers.
The measuring project is called Project CAP: Central and Southern Andes GPS Project.
Dr. Ben Brooks, an associate researcher with the School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology at the University of Hawaii and co-principal investigator on the project, worked with a team of researchers from OSU, University of Memphis and several others to analyze the data.
"The GPS stations are located on stable monuments at various places in Chile, Argentina, and surrounding countries," Brooks told Discovery News in an email. "Each place is different but the OSU/UHawaii/Memphis group always tries to place its monuments in rock or very deeply anchored tripods to insure we are measuring crustal movement and not just local displacements."
"The fact that there is so much consistency in the preliminary GPS solution that we have presented (meaning there is not wild variation between neighboring points) means that our results are valid for large regions," Brooks explained. "So a region as large as a city moved three meters (9.8 feet) to the west, but neighboring regions did so by almost as much."
California Institute of Technology is also participating in the project, as well as the Instituto Geografica Militar, the Universidad de Concepcion and the Centro de Estudios Cientificos, all in Chile, according to OSU's press release.
In Argentina, the Instituto Geografica Militar, the Universidad Nacional de Cuyo in Mendoza and the Universidad Nacional de Buenos Aires are collaborating in the work. UNAVCO, a consortium of more than 50 institutions and agencies involved in research in the geosciences, is providing equipment for the project, the OSU press release said.


NASA REPORT ABOUT THE PLANET/
Earthquake shakes entire planet


By Hsi Chan
Science Editor
Published: Sunday, March 7, 2010
Updated: Monday, March 8, 2010
boston.com
The 8.8 magnitude earthquake in Chile, the seventh most powerful in history, shortened the day and shifted the planet’s axis.
According to NASA scientists, Chile’s magnitude 8.8 earthquake, the seventh most powerful in recorded history, has shortened the day by 1.26 microseconds and shifted the Earth’s axis of rotation by 3 inches. Lasting a mere 3 minutes, the Chilean earthquake killed approximately 700 people and resulted in damages of over $8 billion.
This is not Chile’s first brush with earthquakes. Situated next to the fault line between the Nazca and South American plates, Chile was severely damaged by a magnitude 9.5 earthquake. After 6,000 deaths and $800 million in damages in 1960, Chile drastically improved building codes and emergency response capabilities.
The result of an energy release from the Earth’s crust, earthquakes can be caused by plate movements, volcanic eruptions and weapon testing. The Chilean earthquake was caused by the convergence of the Nazca plate and the South American plate. According to NASA geophysicist Richard Gross, the shift in the tectonic plates subtlety altered the mass distribution of the Earth. Both the location and the angle of the earthquake played a large role in the planetary shift.
This geological process is likened to that of a spinning ice skater. “When an ice skater spins on the ice spins pretty quickly, but that rotation actually increases as the ice skater pulls their mass in tighter and tighter,” said Wendy Ackerman of the Maryland Science Center.
All large geological events can potentially change the rotation of the Earth. “Any worldly event that involves the movement of mass affects the Earth’s rotation,” said Benjamin Fong Chao of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., in a CNN interview.
Currently, scientists cannot accurately predict earthquakes in the short term. According to the United States Geological Survey, scientists can only calculate the possibilities of potential quakes in the long term.
Experts say there are five areas located near dangerous earthquake zones. The Pacific Northwest, California, the Eastern seaboard, Alaska and even the Midwest are close to active faults. While there is less earthquake activity around the Eastern Seaboard than California, buildings are structurally weaker.
“There’s clearly much less activity on the Eastern Seaboard than in California or the Pacific Northwest, but the flip side of that is that the building codes aren’t of the same standard,” said Geoffrey Reyes, a seismologist at Columbia University.
“So even modest-sized earthquakes close to populated areas could be much more destructive. There are a lot of emergency preparedness groups in California, a lot of work on building codes and designs, but building to earthquake codes is expensive, and in the east there are older buildings built before people thought very hard about earthquakes. Buildings cause 80 percent of deaths in earthquakes from structure collapse.”
So far this year, there have been eight major earthquakes. The most recent struck Taiwan last week. While the recent spate of earthquakes has captivated the world’s attention, the number of earthquakes of magnitude 7.0 and greater have actually decreased in recent years.

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