Sunday, January 3, 2010

Florida:Citrus economy in danger by a new disease."SARASOTA HERALD TRIBUNE"

The first industry in Florida, citrus, now reduced to fifty percent of its capacity than it was in 1970, faces the greatest danger in its history since the Spanish introduction in the region of the orange during The Conquest of America:

The Florida citrus growers are in danger of being ruined in the midst of an economic crisis and climate change evident by the appearance of a disease spread by insects called Huanglongbing or yellow dragon disease which leaves the bitter green fruit, kills trees and leaves as the only way to burn the corn itself.
The Sarasota Herald Tribune "vividly documented this situation in a long series of reportages we recommend to our readers because this phenomenon threatens not only the economy of Florida, but that of Mexico, the Caribbean and Central America.
International cooperation is needed to address this problem and customs care for this disease does not harm the economy even more citrus in the area.Gualterio Nunez Estrada, Sarasota, Florida, 34232.
 Note: What is the Asian Citrus Psyllid?
The Asian Citrus Psyllid is an aphid-like insect that feeds on the leaves and stems of citrus trees and other citrus-like plants – but the real danger lies in that it can be a carrier of a deadly, bacterial tree disease called Huanglongbing (HLB) , also known as Citrus Greening Disease.
Where has the insect been found?
The disease-carrying Asian Citrus Psyllid has already caused devastation in Asia, India, parts of the Middle East, and South and Central America. Now the psyllid has been found in Mexico, Hawaii, Texas, Louisiana, Georgia, Alabama, South Carolina, Florida and – most recently – southern California.
In June 2008, the psyllid was spotted dangerously close to California – right across the international border in Tijuana, Mexico. Only a few months later, it was detected in San Diego and Imperial counties. The Asian Citrus Psyllid has also been intercepted coming into California in packages of fruit and plants, including citrus, ornamentals, herbs and bouquets of cut flowers, shipped from other states and countries.
How could the Asian Citrus Psyllid further spread in our state?
The Asian Citrus Psyllid could spread throughout the state by the transportation of infested plants or plant parts. To curb this, a quarantine has been implemented.
The disease-carrying Asian Citrus Psyllid could spread throughout the state on citrus plants and close relatives of citrus – such as orange jasmine or Indian curry leaves – that arrive in airplanes, ships, trucks, cars or mail. Distribution of orange jasmine plants by retail nurseries was the main method of movement of the Asian Citrus Psyllid throughout Florida. Floral bouquets containing psyllid-infested orange jasmine have been intercepted coming into California from Mexico.
Additionally, the psyllid could fly northward from southern California and gradually spread throughout the state.
What types of plants can the psyllid ride on?
Orange jasmine is a relative of citrus and can be a carrier of the disease-carrying psyllid. In Florida, orange jasmine is a common backyard plant that produces lots of new leaves on which the psyllid can grow. Movement of infested plants around the state spread the psyllid throughout Florida in three years.
Curry leaves – which can be a carrier of the psyllid - have carried the insect from Hawaii to California. To date, the psyllids have been intercepted and destroyed. Infested plants or plant parts may also unknowingly be transported by homeowners or businesses. The Indian curry leaf grower in Hawaii did not know these leaves were infested with Asian citrus psyllids. The leaves were shipped to California for culinary purposes and luckily the psyllids were found at the airport and destroyed.
USDA Map where Asian citrus psyllids have been found in California and quarantine area La primera industria de Florida, la de los citricos, ya reducida a un cincuenta por ciento de su capacidad de lo que era en 1970, enfrenta el mayor peligro de toda su historia desde que los espanolas inrodujeron, en la region, la naranja durante la Conquista de America: (Floral bouquets containing psyllid-infested orange jasmine have been intercepted coming into California from Mexico.Curry leaves – which can be a carrier of the psyllid - have carried the insect from Hawaii to California. To date, the psyllids have been intercepted and destroyed. Infested plants or plant parts may also unknowingly be transported by homeowners or businesses. The Indian curry leaf grower in Hawaii did not know these leaves were infested with Asian citrus psyllids. The leaves were shipped to California for culinary purposes and luckily the psyllids were found at the airport and destroyed.
Los productores de citricos de Florida enrfrentan el peligro de verse arruinados en medio de una crisis economica y un cambio climatico evidente por la aparicion de una enfermedad transmitida por insectos que llaman Huanglongbing o enfermedad del dragon amarillo que deja el fruto verde y amargo, mata los arboles y deja como unica salida quemar el sembrado.
El "Sarasota Herald Tribune" documenta detalladamente esta situacion en una larga serie de reportages que recomendamos a nuestros lectores debido a que este fenomeno amenaza no solo la economia de Florida, sino la de Mexico, el Caribe y Centroamerica.
Se requiere una cooperacion internacional para enfrentar este problema y un cuidado aduanal para que esta enfermedad no dane aun mas la economia de los citricos en el area.
La première industrie de la Floride, les agrumes, maintenant réduite à cinquante pour cent de sa capacité à ce qu'il était en 1970, fait face au plus grand danger dans son histoire depuis le inrodujeron espagnol dans la région, l'orange pendant conquête de l'Amérique:
Les producteurs d'agrumes de Floride enrfrentan en danger d'être perdue au milieu d'une crise économique et le changement climatique en évidence par l'apparition d'une maladie transmise par des insectes ou d'une maladie appelée Huanglongbing dragon jaune qui laisse le fruit vert amer, tue arbres et des feuilles comme le seul moyen de brûler le maïs lui-même.
Le Sarasota Herald Tribune "vivement documenté cette situation dans une longue série de reportages, nous recommandons à nos lecteurs parce que ce phénomène ne menace pas seulement l'économie de la Floride, mais celle du Mexique, les Caraïbes et l'Amérique centrale.
Первый промышленности в штате Флорида, цитрусовые, сейчас сокращен до пятидесяти процентов от своих возможностей, чем это было в 1970 году, сталкивается с наибольшей опасности в своей истории, начиная с испанского inrodujeron в регионе, во время оранжевой Завоевание Америки:
Флорида enrfrentan производители цитрусовых в опасности быть разрушен в разгар экономического кризиса и изменения климата очевидным появление болезней, распространяемых насекомыми Huanglongbing называемой болезнью или желтого дракона, которая оставляет горький зеленый плод, убивает деревья и листья, как единственный способ сжигать хлеб себе.
Sarasota Herald Tribune "ярко описанное в этой ситуации длинную серию репортажей мы рекомендуем нашим читателям, поскольку это явление угрожает не только экономику, Флорида, но что из Мексики, Карибского бассейна и Центральной Америки.
Международное сотрудничество необходимо для решения этой проблемы и таможенных помощи этой болезни не нанести ущерб экономике еще больше цитрусовых в этом районе.
 
Source:The struggle to save citrus in Florida
By Tom Bayles
Published: Saturday, January 2, 2010 at 1:00 a.m.
Last Modified: Friday, January 1, 2010 at 10:30 p.m.
Citrus growers are starting out the new decade in what many of them view as their final fight for survival.


Special web section: The State of Citrus Citrus greening produces lopsided fruit and oddly shaped seeds.
common name: Asian citrus psyllid scientific name: Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Insecta: Hemiptera: Psyllidae)
Introduction - Distribution - Description and Identification - Life History - Damage - Host Plants - Surveyand Detection - Disease Transmission - Management - Selected References
Introduction
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is widely distributed in southern Asia. It is an important pest of citrus in several countries, particularly India, where there has been a serious decline of citrus. This psyllid did not occur in North America or Hawaii but was reported in Brazil, by Costa Lima (1942) and Catling (1970). However, in June 1998, the insect was detected in Florida, distributed along Highway 1 on the east coast of Florida, from Broward to St. Lucie counties and was apparently limited to dooryard host plantings at the time of its discovery. By September 2000, this pest had spread to 31 counties in Florida (Halbert 2001). Diaphorina citri, and one of its parasites, was also present in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Both species appear to have been accidentally introduced in the spring of 2001 on potted Murraya originating in Florida (Michaud). http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/citrus/acpsyllid.htm
2007 Caribbean Division Meeting Abstracts
(Joint with the Mexican Phytopathological
Society and the Latinoamerican Phytopathological Association)
May 20-24, 2007 - Cancun, Mexico
Posted online April 9, 2008
Increased efficiency of disease resistance detection in wild and domesticated Phaseolus populations that coevolved with the bean rust pathogen Uromyces appendiculatus. M. ACEVEDO (1), J. R. Steadman (1), J. C. Rosas (2), and J. Venegas (2). (1) University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Plant Pathology Department 68583-0722; (2) E.A.P Zamorano, Honduras.

Common bean domestication and sub-domestication events in Central America have generated a continuum of wild, weedy and domesticated Phaseolus species growing in close proximity in Honduras. We present evidence that pathogen virulence diversity is greatest in Honduras. To test the hypothesis that higher levels of resistance can be found in natural populations where the host and the pathogen coevolved, 74 bean accessions including wild P. vulgaris, P. vulgaris landraces, P. lunatus, and wild and domesticated P. coccineus were evaluated for rust resistance. The accessions were inoculated with each of six U. appendiculatus isolates that represent the most common and virulent pathotypes found in Honduras. Intermediate to high levels of resistance were found in 52.5% of the accessions. Ten of the resistant accessions were P. coccineus, 14 were P. vulgaris landraces, 3 P. lunatus, 4 were wild P. vulgaris and 1 was a weedy accession. Despite susceptibility to bean rust being the norm in wild P. vulgaris populations, high levels of resistance are present in some wild P. vulgaris in Honduras. Plant explorations in the center of diversity of the pathogens should be used for the identification of new sources of resistance that broadens the genetic base for disease resistance in common bean. Huanglongbing or citrus greening: A new disease for the Americas. R. H. BRLANSKY. University of Florida, CREC, Lake Alfred, FL 33850, rhby@ufl.edu.
In 2004 Huanglongbing or citrus greening disease was found in Brazil and in 2005 the disease was discovered in the U.S. in Florida. The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama is the pathogen vector in both regions. The psyllid has been present in Florida since 1998 and is now found wherever citrus is grown. In Florida the disease was first found in south Florida and now has been found in most major citrus producing regions of the state. Symptoms, identification and detection, damage to tree health, economic losses, management strategies and research priorities are discussed.
Search for the insect vectors of Lethal Yellowing (LY), a phytoplasma disease in Mexico. J. F. Julia (1), S. Sanchez-Soto (2), M. Navarez (3), C. Oropeza (3), C. F. Ortiz (2), R. Castillo (4), and M. Dollet (1). (1) CIRAD-Bios UPR 29 TAA29/F 34398 Montpellier, Cedex 5 France (E-mail: s.t.julia@prodigy.net.mx); (2) Colegio de Postgraduados Campus Tabasco, 86500 Cárdenas, Tabasco, Mexico; (3) CICY calle 43 #130 Colonia Chuburna de Hidalgo, 97200 Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico; (4) INIFAP-Golfo Apartado P17 86400 Huimanguillo,Tabasco, Mexico.
The aim was to identify the insect vectors of LY in Tabasco. First of all, an inventory was made Homoptera, then transmission trials were conducted. In addition to the Cixiidae Myndus crudus, the vector of LY in Florida, and M. skarphion, a neighboring species, all Homoptera (mostly Derbidae) were collected in coconut plantations with LY and released by species or groups of species into cages containing 5 coconut seedlings at least one year old, taken from a plantation free of LY for several years. The experimental design comprised 6 cages, including a control without insects. Releases began on 05/10/2006. By 28/02/2007 more than 21,000 insects had been released. According to the results obtained by F.W. Howard in Florida, symptoms could be seen from August 2007 onwards, or LY symptoms could be detected earlier by PCR. In addition, tests were carried out on plantlets germinated in vitro and maintained in a closed system into which M. crudus individuals were released. A group of control plantlets was not exposed to the insects. On those in vitro plantlets, phytoplasma acquisition was determined by PCR after exposure to the insects.
Multi-site screening for identification of small effect disease resistance traits: White mold of bean as a case study. L. K. OTTO-HANSON and J. Steadman. Dept. of Plant Pathology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0722.
The screening difficulties presented by small effect disease resistance traits, or Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL), can be reduced by using multiple location screening sites and understanding the role of pathogen variation in the screening system. Resistance in bean to white mold caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum has been shown to be partial and to involve QTL. Repeatability of resistance expression has been a consistent problem. Variation in white mold screening results can be due to variability of the screening sites, the screening methods used, and/or the variability of the pathogen. Our objective was to identify bean germplasm with broad partial resistance to white mold using multi-site screening. To accomplish this, putative sources of resistance developed by breeders were evaluated by field plot and greenhouse screening methods at multiple sites. Isolates of S. sclerotiorum were collected from multiple field test sites. These and other isolates used to screen beans for resistance in the greenhouse were tested for aggressiveness and genetic variation. The straw test greenhouse screening method was identified for common use across locations. Isolate characterization tests identified genetic diversity between S. sclerotiorum isolates used in greenhouse screening. Isolates found in white mold field screening plots also exhibited both within and between field variations. Aggressiveness differences were found between the ten greenhouse isolates. The combination of multi-site screening, a common greenhouse test, and use of characterized isolates for screening reduces variability between test sites and allows identification of resistance that is repeatable.
Biological effectiveness of Cymoxanil 10%, for the control of the potato late blight Phytophthora infestans Mont de Bary. A. Pérez-González, J. Santillan-Santana, P. Posos-Ponce, J. L. Martinez-Ramirez, R. Rodriguez-Ruvalcaba, C. M. Duran-Martinez, and V. A. Aceves-Núñez. Km. 15,5 Guadalajara - Nogales, Predio Las Agujas, Zapopan, Jalisco. C.P. 45110. aperez@cucba.udg.mx
The national area of potato cultivated is of 70 thousand hectares, of which half are cultivated in rain stage conditions, the potato state producers are: Mexico, Puebla, Sinaloa, Coahuila, Veracruz, Guanajuato, Michoacán, and Jalisco that occupies the first place in harvested surface. Several factors limit its production being the potato late blight one of the most harmful ones. The infected tubercles present on the epidermis a light coffee to purple color as a dry or humid injury, and can not present symptoms during the harvest and be pronounced in the storage. The objective was to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the fungicide Cymoxanil 10%, for the control of potato late blight, in the potato culture. The experiment was established in 2005, in the locality of Guarachanillo, Mich. A random block design was used with 5 treatments: Cymoxanil 10% with 1, 2, and 3 kg/ha; Curzate M-8 2 kg/ha and absolute witness, with 4 replies. The size of the experimental unit was of 4 furrows of 6 meters in length. The best treatments were Cymoxanil 10% (300 gr. i.a./ha.) with a control of 95% in average after three applications, followed by the treatments Cymoxanil 10% (200 gr. i.a./ha) and the regional witness Curzate M-8 (Cymoxanil + 160+1260 Mancozeb gr. i.a./ha) with an 80% control. We recommend making applications of Cymoxanil in the rank of 2.0 to 3.0 kilos by hectare with intervals of 7 days between one application and another.
Phytoplasma associated diseases in organic vegetable crops in Santo Domingo Valley. A. Poghosyan, V. Lebsky, R. Servin-Villegas, and L. Landa. Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, Mar Bermejo 195, Col. Playa Palo de Santa Rita; La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico 23090.
Santo Domingo Valley is one of the most important agricultural areas in the State of Baja California Sur (BCS), raising organic vegetables, destined for the USA market. Phytoplasma is among the most harmful and destructive pathogens, significantly reducing crop production and lowering the quality of fruits. In BCS phytoplasma-associated diseases have not been extensively studied. During 2006 and 2007 regular surveys were conducted in open fields and greenhouses at the “Espinoza Hermanos” farm to evaluate the role of phytoplasmas in yellow-type symptoms observed in organic cherry tomato, bell pepper, cucumber and basil fields. Disease symptoms resembled those caused by phytoplasma: shortened internodes, erect, reduced and wrinkled apical and internodal leaves, interveinal chlorosis, and marginal anthocyan. Floral parts in diseased tomato and pepper plants were dried and reduced, in basil and cucumber plants where was proliferation of inflorescence into a witches’-broom. Symptoms were transmitted to test plants by grafting and typical symptoms appeared in 2 to 3 months. Modified scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were used to detect suspected pathogen in plant tissues of specimens taken from the field and greenhouse-indexed samples (apical leaf veins, leafstalks, axillary leaflets and floral parts) revealed phytoplasma cells in phloem tissue of symptomatic and some asymptomatic crops and wild plants among the crops, ranging in size from 400 to 2000 nm. The size of phytoplasma and its abundance in phloem tissue varied with growth stage and disease severity. Phytoplasmas were also first detected in volunteer cilantro and neem-tree, suggesting new reservoirs of phytoplasma in this region.

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