Sunday, January 31, 2010

Sergey Lavrov's media briefing about Haiti and Cuba...from version"TV-Novosti"

ABOUT CUBA AND RUSSIAN RELATION SPEECH:
Transcript of remarks and response to media questions by Minister of Foreign Affairs Sergey Lavrov at press conference to sum up Russian foreign policy activities in 2009, Moscow, January 22, 2010.


You asked separately about our relationship with Cuba. These relations have a special place in our ties with Latin America. I have already said that the President of the Council of State and the Council of Ministers of Cuba, Raul Castro, paid a visit to Russia a year ago. A meeting of the Cuba-Russia Intergovernmental Commission on trade-and-economic and scientific-technical cooperation took place, and solid packages of documents were signed. We laid the emphasis on energy, transport, engineering and biopharmaceuticals. A Memorandum on the principles of our strategic cooperation was also signed. This year we celebrate the 50th anniversary of the restoration of diplomatic relations between our countries. As part of my visit to Havana I will participate in the 19th Havana International Book Fair, where this year Russia will be the chief guest. So in all spheres, including humanitarian, we have very good prospects. For us these relations are value in themselves. They develop to the extent that there is very serious, very natural interest in promoting mutually beneficial cooperation.


ABOUT HAITI THE RUSSIAN FOREIGN AFFAIRS MINISTER ANSWERED TO THE PRESS:
With regard to Haiti, of course, we advocate that the operations of relief to that long-suffering country should be carried out in strict accordance with the principles that are endorsed by the international community for such situations. Whether we like it or not, in many cases, the humanitarian situation in some way requires the deployment of military resources, just because it is faster, more efficient. But it is sometimes also that there are simply no other resources to cope with a disaster. The Haiti disaster is really an unprecedented tragedy. I proceed from the assumption that whatever resources the various countries might use, Russia will actively participate in relief efforts in Haiti through the provision of personnel, equipment and supplies by our Emergencies Ministry in any case. Nobody will exploit the current situation to achieve any purpose other than to provide assistance to the Haitian people and the Haitian state in dire need of it.

Haiti, photo: Carlos Barria, from Argentina.(BBC MUNDO)




Publicado en: 1/17/2010.http://www.nationnews.com/story/guest-column-hilary-beckles-copy-for-web-Barbados.
POR SIR HILARY BECKLES
LA UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES esta en el proceso de concebir la mejor para ofrecer una importante Conferencia sobre el tema de repensar sobre la reconstrucción de Haití.
Estoy muy deseosos de un aporte en este ejercicio porque durante mucho tiempo ha habido una percepción popular que de alguna manera el proyecto de construcción de la nación haitiano, lanzado el 1 de enero de 1804, ha fracasado a causa de la mala gestión, ineptitud, corrupción.
Enterradas bajo los escombros de propaganda imperial, fuera de Europa occidental y Estados Unidos, es la evidencia que demuestra que la independencia de Haití fue derrotado por una alianza del Norte-Atlántico agresiva que no podría imaginar su mundo habitado por un régimen libre de africanos como representantes de la naciente democracia.
La evidencia es sorprendente, especialmente en el contexto de Francia.
Los haitianos luchaban por su libertad y ganó, igual que los estadounidenses cincuenta años antes. Los americanos declararon su independencia y había diseñado una Constitución extraordinaria que establezca un mensaje claro sobre el valor de la humanidad y el derecho a la libertad, la justicia y la libertad.
En medio de este discurso brillante, decidieron mantener la esclavitud como base para el nuevo estado de la nación. Los padres fundadores, por lo tanto, no podía ver más allá de la carrera, como el estado libre fue construido sobre una base de esclavitud.
El agua fue envenenado en el pozo; los estadounidenses volvieron al campo de batalla un siglo más tarde para resolver el hecho de que esclavitud y libertad podrían no cómodamente coexistir en el mismo lugar.
Los franceses, también, declararon la libertad, la fraternidad y la igualdad como las nuevas filosofías de su transformación nacional y dieron el mundo moderno un enorme impulso progresivo por hacerlo.
Abolió la esclavitud, pero Napoleón no podía imaginar la República(negra) sin esclavitud e hizo objetivo a los haitianos de un régimen nuevo, más intenso de la esclavitud. Los británicos estuvieron de acuerdo, al igual que el holandés, español y portugués.
Todos fueron vinculados en comunión contra medio millon de  negros en Haití, la más poblada y próspera colonia caribeña.
Como la joya del Caribe, en la cual todos querían poner sus manos para saquearla. Con una base de esclavos masiva, el inglés, francés y holandés pugnaron por hacerse duenos de la colonia y el pueblo.


El pueblo ganó una guerra de diez años, los más sangrientos en la historia moderna y declararon su independencia. Todos los demás países en las Américas se basaban en la esclavitud.
Haití fue la libertad total y procedió a colocar en su Constitución de independencia de 1805 que cualquier persona de ascendencia africana que llegara a sus orillas fuera declarado libre y un ciudadano de la República.
Por primera vez( en la historia de America) donde había comenzado la esclavitud, los negros formaban parte de la libertad masiva y la ciudadanía en una Nación.

Los franceses se han negado a reconocer la independencia de Haití y declararon un Estado paria ilegal. Los norteamericanos, quienes los haitianos espera en solidaridad como su mentor en independencia, se negaron a reconocerlos y ofrecieron solidaridad en su lugar a los franceses. Los británicos, que estaban negociando con los franceses para obtener el título de propiedad a Haití, también se trasladaron en solidaridad, como hicieron otro Estado de cada nación del mundo occidental.
Haití fue aislado al nacer - ostracismo y se le  niega el acceso al comercio mundial, finanzas y desarrollo institucional. Es el ejemplo más vicioso de estrangulación nacional registrado en la historia moderna.
Los cubanos, al menos, han tenido Rusia(1), China y Vietnam. Los haitianos estaban solos desde el inicio. El desmoronamiento comenzó.
Luego vino 1825; el momento de toda la verdad. La República celebra su XXI aniversario. Hay euforia nacional en las calles de Puerto Príncipe.
La economía en bancarrota aislaron a los dirigentes políticos. El gabinete tomó la decisión de que la situación no podía continuar.
El país tuvo que encontrar una manera de insertarse en la economía mundial. El Gobierno francés fue invitado a una cumbre.
Los funcionarios llegaron y dijeron el Gobierno haitiano que estaban dispuestos a reconocer el país como una nación soberana, pero tendría que pagar indemnización y reparación a cambio. Los haitianos, con la espada y la pared, acordaron pagar a los franceses.
El Gobierno francés envió un equipo de contadores y actuarios en Haití con el fin de colocar un valor en todas las tierras, todos los activos físicos, los ciudadanos de 500 000 fueron que anteriormente esclavizados, animales y todos los demás propiedades comerciales y servicios.
Las sumas ascienden a 150 millones de francos de oro. Haití dijeron a pagar esta reparación a Francia a cambio de reconocimiento nacional.
El Gobierno haitiano acordó; pagos comenzaron inmediatamente. Miembros del gabinete también fueron valorados porque habían sido esclavos antes de la independencia.
Así comenzó la destrucción sistemática de la República de Haití. El Gobierno francés sangró de la nación y hacía un estado fallido. Fue una explotación sin piedad que fue diseñada y garantizada para contraer la economía haitiana y la sociedad.
Haití se vio obligado a pagar esta suma hasta 1922, cuando se hizo el último pago. Durante el largo del siglo XIX, el pago a Francia ascendieron a hasta un 70 por ciento de los ingresos en divisas del país.
Jamaica hoy paga hasta un 70 por ciento con el fin de servicio de su deuda internacional y nacional. Haití fue aplastado por este pago de la deuda. Descendió en un caos financiero y social.
La República no pie una oportunidad. Francia se enriqueció y tomó placer por el hecho de después de haber sido derrotado por haitianos en el campo de batalla, había ganado en el campo de las finanzas. En los años cuando falló de los cultivos de café, o disminuyó la producción de azúcar, el Gobierno haitiano tomó prestado en el mercado de dinero francés en doble la tasa de interés de ir a fin de reembolsar el Gobierno francés.
Cuando los estadounidenses invadieron el país en el siglo XX, una de las razones que ofreció fue ayudar a los franceses en la recogida de su reparación.
El colapso de la nación haitiana se encuentra en los pies de Francia y América, especialmente. Estas dos naciones traicionaron, falló y destruyeron el sueño que fue Haití; aplastó al polvo en un esfuerzo por destruir la flor de la libertad y la semilla de la justicia.
Haití no fracasó. Fue destruida por dos de los países más poderosos en la tierra, los cuales siguen teniendo un interés principal en su estado actual.
El terremoto repentino ha llegado después de veranos de odio. En muchos sentidos, el terremoto ha sido menos destructivo que el odio.
Vida humana se apagaron por el terremoto, mientras que el odio ha sido un largo e inhumano asfixia - un crimen de lesa humanidad.
Durante el 2001 Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre Race en Durban, Sudáfrica, fuerte representación fue hecha al Gobierno francés para pagar los 150 millones de francos.
El valor de esta cantidad fue estimado por actuarios financieros como 21 millones de dólares. Esta suma de capital podría reconstruir Haití y colocarlo en una posición para reincorporarse el mundo moderno. Se fue extraída ilegalmente al pueblo haitiano y deben ser reembolsado.
Es riqueza robada. Para ello, Francia pueda cumplir su obligación moral de la población haitiana.
Para una nación que se enorgullece en la celebración de la diplomacia moderna, Francia, con el fin de existir con la autoridad moral de esta diplomacia en este mundo postmoderno, debe hacer lo justo y legal.
Ese acto al principio de este siglo podría abrir la puerta para una interfaz sofisticada de pasadas y presentes y establecer la nación haitiana libre por fin.
l Sir Hilary Beckles es Vicerrector y director de la cueva Hill Campus, UWI.


(1)Las fuerzas morales de la cultura rusa son un factor de desarrollo en América Latina

11:20
10/ 12/ 2007
Gualterio Núñez Estrada, escritor y periodista cubano, para RIA Novosti.


....................................................................
Cuando en 1993 fundé en mi casa de Santiago de Cuba, junto con dos médicos y un traductor, un equipo de colaboración con el Doctor John Money, director de la Unidad de Investigaciones Sicohormonales en Maryland, Estados Unidos, perteneciente a la "Johns Hopkins", nunca pensé en la trascendencia de la cultura rusa y sus valores morales en aquel intercambio de información científica para apoyar el Sistema Universal de la Salud Publica Gratis de Cuba. Sin embargo, años después, comprobamos que los resultados positivos en Cuba bajo la influencia humanitaria de un líder Norte Americano de la ciencia medica, el doctor John Money, se debieron en gran medida a la sólida base ética y moral de la cultura rusa y cubana a través de la influencia de comunidades científicas y académicas, a nivel de población, como motivación de la personalidad transcendental, básica, en cualquier afán investigativo científico y/o de creación artística.

El fuerte apoyo inercial que recibimos en Cuba, en 1993, por parte de todos los sectores médicos y universitarios para desarrollar la discusión de las tesis de Money sobre sexología en el área extramuros de la Universidad de Oriente se debió en gran medida a que todos dominaban que no teníamos ningún interés material sino académico y científico, y, porque a partir de 1959 con la toma del poder de la Revolución Cubana, y mas aun, a partir de l963 bajo la poderosa influencia de la cultura rusa, dominada por la filosofía moral de la Iglesia Ortodoxa como era obvio en la conducta de los rusos en Cuba, su humildad, su modestia y su interés sin limites por ayudar a un país del Caribe subdesarrollado y olvidado por las mas ricas potencias, más allá de la coyuntura de una alianza estratégica con la antigua URSS, formaron sólidas bases éticas y morales y una rica vida espiritual en un ecosistema sano y protegido por una conciencia del ser social sobre la naturaleza.
Para 1993 se entronizo en Cuba el principio de la base cultural, a nivel de población, de las comunidades científicas y académicas, en pleno periodo especial, pese a que el intercambio de información con Rusia era casi nulo en comparación a una década anterior. Debido a que vivimos esta experiencia en Cuba hasta 1996 redactamos este artículo con fuertes elementos autobiográficos y testimoniales a manera de ejemplos para sustentar nuestras consideraciones sobre Rusia.


La filosofía rusa y su desarrollo derivado de la lengua de Cirilo y Metodio, practicada por miles de cubanos, fue lo que nos dio la pauta para eludir errores lógicos en el análisis de las tesis de Money cuya área de trabajo de campo es la sociedad norteamericana, la más rica y tecnológica del planeta. Precisamente, en varias cartas manuscritas desde su oficina en Maryland, de puno y letra, Money me advertía del peligro de que sus tesis no se cumplieran en países del mundo en desarrollo, como Cuba, por lo cual no podían ser tomadas como verdades universales hasta tanto pudieran ser comprobadas en países pobres.
En principio, nunca tuvimos la certidumbre si la base lógica rusa que aplicamos, basada en el movimiento filosófico de la "actividad activa" del ser social en los setenta, en estudios empíricos de economía política rusa aplicados a la sociedad cubana durante el periodo especial en los noventa y en tesis de filósofos lógicos rusos de la Academia de Ciencias en Moscú podían tener validez científica o no, en un estudio ensayístico literario que emprendimos sobre la identidad caribe y el rol de sexo en las investigaciones de Money, como prueba de que manejábamos verdades universales como instrumentos de la teoría del conocimiento. Primero, no conocíamos la sociedad norteamericana, ni conocíamos la sociedad dominicana, campo de estudio del ensayo, solo poseíamos información y la experiencia de amigos y colaboradores que habían podido visitar Rusia, una suerte con la cual nunca pude contar mientras viví en Cuba, pese a que siempre exprese mi voluntad de visitar Moscú y San Petersburgo.
Residiendo en Estados Unidos desde l996 por reunificación familiar, me llego la confirmación de que la base lógica de mi ensayo, no contenía errores lógicos. El año pasado, en el 2006, encontré en Internet que mi ensayo sobre la identidad caribe con la bibliografía de la Academia de Ciencias de Rusia, como base lógica, había sido publicado bajo los auspicios de la Universidad de Republica Dominicana junto a un análisis estilístico de mi amigo, el poeta y analista cubano, Marino Wilson Jay, y que este libro forma base actualmente de un doctorado de esa institución dominicana y la Universidad del País Vasco sobre identidad cultural.


Para mi sorpresa, el libro fue vendido en Berlín por una librería que sólo publica textos en alemán. Además, ha sido catalogado por la biblioteca "Davis", de la Universidad de North Carolina, "Library and archives of Canada", la Biblioteca del Congreso en Washington y es fondo en Kinsey, Indiana, así como en el fondo de "Libros Raros y Valiosos" de la Biblioteca Nacional de Cuba. Recientemente, mis consideraciones sobre la educación de ciencias en Estados Unidos, forman parte del informe al Presidente y al Senado en Washington con fecha de septiembre del 2007 sobre la base de las tesis del libro aludido. Ese informe, reciente, aparece en el buscador por mi nombre en el sitio web del "National Science Board" de Estados Unidos.
Todo lo anterior me demuestra que las fuerzas morales y éticas de la cultura rusa son un importante factor en la motivación de la personalidad trascendental en países en desarrollo del Tercer Mundo, como lo son los ejemplos antes citado, y, sobre todo, los indicadores cubanos de Naciones Unidas en salud, educación y cultura, rubros que aportan bienestar al desarrollo de la formación económico-estatal. Ahora escribo la segunda parte del ensayo referida a los símbolos del inconciente en la identidad caribe para una posible segunda edición. La primera edición se agotó, incluso en Berlín, según confirmé por teléfono y el libro está sólo en español.

Como católico romano, siempre admiré en los rusos la formación ética y moral de la iglesia ortodoxa rusa que en no pocos casos superaba mi formación religiosa derivada de Roma y España e influida por el sincretismo de la cultura Yoruba de África.

La religiosidad rusa era más devota, mas solidaria y menos mística que la que me habían enseñado y siempre les ví un sentimiento de fe en Cristo superior al mío. Sus acciones me lo indicaban así, la conducta, sobre todo, de las mujeres rusas en Cuba. La Iglesia Ortodoxa Rusa es la fuente del desarrollo de la filosofía rusa paralelo al de Occidente y en no pocos casos, superior en profundidad. Sin embargo, un anhelo ético similar nos armonizaba siempre: el de Pushkin y José Martí, dos soles del mundo moral nacidos en el mismo universo ético.

 
La URSS desapareció, la colaboración ruso-cubana se redujo al mínimo, pero su prepuesto filosófico y moral influye, hoy, en el mundo entero amplificando sus bases originales en las individualidades que se formaron bajo este hogar de ideas como un ejemplo de hermandad entre dos pueblos, pese a sus diferencias étnicas, culturales y materiales. Por primera vez en la historia de la humanidad, el ejemplo ruso-cubano, demuestra, con pruebas en rubros que influyen a los indicadores de comportamiento demográfico y a la rica vida espiritual del pueblo cubano, como así lo atestiguan los visitantes en la isla caribeña, que las fuerzas morales de la cultura rusa son un factor de desarrollo en America Latina que debe ser tomado en consideración en cualquier estrategia de gobierno orientado al desarrollo socioeconómico en esta región olvidada del planeta, como así lo ilustra el caso cubano, un país pobre del Caribe, en todas las oficinas regionales de Naciones Unidas y la UNESCO.

 
Gualterio Núñez Estrada, escritor y periodista cubano, Santiago de Cuba, 1947,Escritor del ICRT, escritor y corresponsal de "Radio Rebelde",Critico de cine y conferencista de lenguaje cinematografico de la comision ICAIC-MES y el ICRT, La Habana-Santiago de Cuba de 1969 a 1980. Escritor fundador de la planta de televisión "TeleRebelde", Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, 1967-69.Escritor científico de la Universidad de Oriente en Santiago de Cuba, Cuba-Unesco Caribe, cursos 1975-80-con asistencia del "Instituto Politécnico "Kalinin", Leningrado. Fotógrafo profesional. Desde 1996 reside con su familia en Florida y actualmente vive en Sarasota, Fl. Forma parte del fondo cubano, el único en español, de la biblioteca "John Money" en el Instituto Kinsey, Indiana. Aparece en el diccionario de escritores de Santiago de Cuba, Cuba y publico su tesis sobre identidad caribe en "Ensayos sobre la poesia de Víctor Villegas", Marino Wilson Jay/Gualterio Núñez Estrada, Mediabyte, 20000, Republica Dominicana, con fuente bibliográfica sobre logica de la Academia de Ciencias de la URSS,doctores en filosofia Alexandra Getmanova, Mijail Panov y Vasili Petrov,Moscu,la tesis fue tutoreada por la doctora en ciencias,Josefina Bestard Guillois MD,investigadora cientifica de la ezquizofrenia, Jefa de Psiquiatria de La Escuela de Medicina de Santiago de Cuba y de Sala "C" en el Hospital Siquiatrico de Jagua, Cuba, con la asistencia del Dr. Jhon Money,clasificador de las filias en el KAPLAN, jefe de Sicohormonal Unit Lab, Maryland, "Jhons Hopskins"(1)y con el apoyo de la  Casa del Caribe, Joel James, Catalogado en la Biblioteca del Congreso de Estados Unidos de America,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries,UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA libraries, New York University libraries,"ORBIS", Yale University cataloge,UCLA Library Catalog, "OSHICAT",University of California Berkeley, Biblioteca y Archivos deCanada, Universidad de Toronto, "Fondos Raros y Valiosos", BNC, Cuba. Forma parte de la bibliografia del doctorado "Filosofia para un mundo Global"del poeta dominicano, profesor Dr.Julio Cuevas, graduado de la Sorbona y EMBAJADOR, ADSCRITO A LA SECRETARIA DE ESTADO DE RELACIONES EXTERIORES DE LA REPUBLICA DOMINICANA, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Espana-Universidad Autonoma de Santo Domingo, Republica Dominicana.. 

"Hecha de Amor y Madera", Víctor Romero Laffita, prólogo de Gualterio Núñez Estrada, Colección Heredia, Editorial Oriente, 1988, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba., catalogado en la Universidad de Miami, Gualterio Núñez Estrada, Colaborador privado por Sarasota del ultimo informe del "National Science Board"(que dirige la NASA) en el Informe al Presidente y al Senado de Estados Unidos sobre el estado de la nación en enseñanza de Ciencias, Ingeniería y Tecnologia, recomendaciones. Sept. del 2007, Estados Unidos. Catolico cubano de la Iglesia de Santiago de Cuba, Cuba con la referencia teologica de las homilias del ex-monsenor Pedro Meurice Estiu.
El autor de este articulo actualmente prepara materiales para la redaccion de la segunda parte de la tesis, para su posible publicacion, con el titulo: "El sistema del segundo nivel en el comportamiento de la identidad caribe sobre la base de los simbolos del inconciente en los codigos linguisticos comunes a Santo Domingo, Haiti, Mejico y la zona oriental de Cuba en el contexto de  los campos semanticos a partir de la expresion literaria del rol de sexo en la poesia de Victor Villegas"


(1) Ver, Doctor Jhon Money en su discurso ante el Congreso de Siquiatria de Israel sobre ofensores de sexo, Tel Aviv, 1971.






Thursday, January 28, 2010

The hate and the quake,Haiti did not fail, it was destroyed by Sir Hilary Beckles, "Trinidad Tobago Guardian"

"Haiti was isolated at birth - ostracized and denied access to world trade, finance, and institutional development. It was the most vicious example of national strangulation recorded in modern history. The Cubans, at least, have had Russia, China, and Vietnam. The Haitians were alone from inception. The crumbling began."
hǎi dì shì gū lì de chū shēng - pái chì, jù jué jìn rù shì jiè mào yì, jīn róng, hé tǐ zhì fā zhǎn。zhè shì zuì è dú dí lì zǐ guó jiā lēi xiàn dài lì shǐ jì lù。gǔ bā rén, zhì shǎo yǒu è luó sī, zhōng guó hé yuè nán。hǎi dì rén cóng yī kāi shǐ shì dān dú。bēng kuì kāi shǐ de。“
"Гаити была выделена при рождении - остракизму и лишены доступа к мировой торговле, финансах и институционального развития. Это был самый порочного пример национального удушения, зарегистрированные в современной истории. Кубинцы, по крайней мере, имели России, Китае и Вьетнаме. гаитян остались наедине с самого начала. рушится начал ".
"Haiti đã bị cô lập khi sinh - tẩy chay và từ chối truy cập đến thương mại thế giới, tài chính, và phát triển thể chế Nó được ví dụ vicious sự ngăn lại nhất của quốc gia được ghi trong lịch sử hiện đại.. Các Cuba, ít nhất, đã có Nga, Trung Quốc và Việt Nam. Các Haitians được một mình từ khi thành lập Các bắt đầu đổ nát.. "
"O Haiti foi isolado no nascimento - ostracismo e negado o acesso ao comércio mundial, finanças e desenvolvimento institucional. Foi o exemplo mais vicioso de estrangulamento nacional registada na história moderna. Os cubanos, pelo menos, tiveram a Rússia, China e Vietnã. Os haitianos estavam sozinhos desde o início. A queda começou. "
"Haití fue aislado al nacer - al ostracismo y se les niega el acceso al comercio mundial, las finanzas y el desarrollo institucional. Es el ejemplo más vicioso de la estrangulación nacional registrada en la historia moderna. Los cubanos, por lo menos, han tenido Rusia, China y Vietnam. Los haitianos estaban solos desde el principio. El desmoronamiento, de esta manera, comenzó en Haiti.



In 2007, Sir Hilary, served on the board of directors at the prestigious Institute of Early American History and Culture, Virginia, USA, and was instrumental in organizing a major conference of American and European scholars in Ghana, in order to discuss the latest research on African-Atlantic History.


Published: 24 Jan 2010


Sir Hilary Beckles

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES is in the process of conceiving how best to deliver a major conference on the theme Rethinking And Rebuilding Haiti. I am very keen to provide an input into this exercise because for too long there has been a popular perception that somehow the Haitian nation-building project, launched on January 1, 1804, has failed on account of mismanagement, ineptitude, corruption. Buried beneath the rubble of imperial propaganda, out of both Western Europe and the United States, is the evidence which shows that Haiti's independence was defeated by an aggressive North-Atlantic alliance that could not imagine their world inhabited by a free regime of Africans as representatives of the newly emerging democracy. The evidence is striking, especially in the context of France.

The Haitians fought for their freedom and won, as did the Americans fifty years earlier. The Americans declared their independence and crafted an extraordinary constitution that set out a clear message about the value of humanity and the right to freedom, justice, and liberty. In the midst of this brilliant discourse, they chose to retain slavery as the basis of the new nation state. The founding fathers therefore could not see beyond race, as the free state was built on a slavery foundation. The water was poisoned in the well; the Americans went back to the battlefield a century later to resolve the fact that slavery and freedom could not comfortably co-exist in the same place. The French, also, declared freedom, fraternity and equality as the new philosophies of their national transformation and gave the modern world a tremendous progressive boost by so doing.


They abolished slavery, but Napoleon Bonaparte could not imagine the republic without slavery and targeted the Haitians for a new, more intense regime of slavery. The British agreed, as did the Dutch, Spanish and Portuguese. All were linked in communion over the 500,000 Blacks in Haiti, the most populous and prosperous Caribbean colony.

 As the jewel of the Caribbean, they all wanted to get their hands on it. With a massive slave base, the English, French and Dutch salivated over owning it - and the people. The people won a ten-year war, the bloodiest in modern history, and declared their independence. Every other country in the Americas was based on slavery. Haiti was freedom, and proceeded to place in its 1805 Independence Constitution that any person of African descent who arrived on its shores would be declared free, and a citizen of the republic.

Children in Haiti.
For the first time since slavery had commenced, Blacks were the subjects of mass freedom and citizenship in a nation. The French refused to recognize Haiti's independence and declared it an illegal pariah state.
Children in Cuba.
The Americans, whom the Haitians looked to in solidarity as their mentor in independence, refused to recognize them, and offered solidarity instead to the French.

The British, who were negotiating with the French to obtain the ownership title to Haiti, also moved in solidarity, as did every other nation-state the Western world. Haiti was isolated at birth - ostracized and denied access to world trade, finance, and institutional development. It was the most vicious example of national strangulation recorded in modern history.


 The Cubans, at least, have had Russia, China, and Vietnam.(1) The Haitians were alone from inception. The crumbling began.

Then came 1825; the moment of full truth. The republic is celebrating its 21st anniversary. There is national euphoria in the streets of Port-au-Prince. The economy is bankrupt; the political leadership isolated. The cabinet took the decision that the state of affairs could not continue. The country had to find a way to be inserted back into the world economy. The French government was invited to a summit. Officials arrived and told the Haitian government that they were willing to recognize the country as a sovereign nation but it would have to pay compensation and reparation in exchange. The Haitians, with backs to the wall, agreed to pay the French. The French government sent a team of accountants and actuaries into Haiti in order to place a value on all lands, all physical assets, the 500 000 citizens were who formerly enslaved, animals, and all other commercial properties and services.
The sums amounted to 150 million gold francs. Haiti was told to pay this reparation to France in return for national recognition. The Haitian government agreed; payments began immediately. Members of the Cabinet were also valued because they had been enslaved people before independence. Thus began the systematic destruction of the Republic of Haiti. The French government bled the nation and rendered it a failed state. It was a merciless exploitation that was designed and guaranteed to collapse the Haitian economy and society. Haiti was forced to pay this sum until 1922 when the last installment was made. During the long 19th century, the payment to France amounted to up to 70 per cent of the country's foreign exchange earnings. Jamaica today pays up to 70 per cent in order to service its international and domestic debt. Haiti was crushed by this debt payment.

It descended into financial and social chaos. The republic did not stand a chance. France was enriched and it took pleasure from the fact that having been defeated by Haitians on the battlefield, it had won on the field of finance. In the years when the coffee crops failed, or the sugar yield was down, the Haitian government borrowed on the French money market at double the going interest rate in order to repay the French government. When the Americans invaded the country in the early 20th century, one of the reasons offered was to assist the French in collecting its reparations. The collapse of the Haitian nation resides at the feet of France and America, especially. These two nations betrayed, failed, and destroyed the dream that was Haiti; crushed to dust in an effort to destroy the flower of freedom and the seed of justice. Haiti did not fail.
 
It was destroyed by two of the most powerful nations on earth, both of which continue to have a primary interest in its current condition. The sudden quake has come in the aftermath of summers of hate. In many ways the quake has been less destructive than the hate. Human life was snuffed out by the quake, while the hate has been a long and inhumane suffocation - a crime against humanity.


 During the 2001 UN Conference on Race in Durban, South Africa, strong representation was made to the French government to repay the 150 million francs. The value of this amount was estimated by financial actuaries as US$21 billion. This sum of capital could rebuild Haiti and place it in a position to re-engage the modern world. It was illegally extracted from the Haitian people and should be repaid.
It is stolen wealth. In so doing, France could discharge its moral obligation to the Haitian people. For a nation that prides itself in the celebration of modern diplomacy, France, in order to exist with the moral authority of this diplomacy in this post-modern world, should do the just and legal thing. Such an act at the outset of this century would open the door for a sophisticated interface of past and present, and set the Haitian nation free at last.
(1)Las fuerzas morales de la cultura rusa son un factor de desarrollo en América Latina

por Gualterio Nunez Estrada, Sarasota, Florida, 34232.
RIA Novosti - Opiniones - Las fuerzas morales de la cultura rusa ... - [ Перевести эту страницу ]


10 Dic 2007 ... Gualterio Núñez Estrada, escritor y periodista cubano, Santiago de Cuba 1947,Escritor del ICRT, escritor y corresponsal de "Radio Rebelde", ...
"The moral force of Russian culture are an important development in Latin America" by Walter Nunez Estrada, Cuban writer for RIA Novosti.
"Лас Fuerzas Моралес-де-ла-Cultura Rusa сына ООН фактор де Desarrollo в Латинской Америке" Пор Gualterio Нуньеса Эстрада, Escritor у периодиста Кубано, пункт РИА "Новости".sp.rian.ru/analysis/.../91622702.html - Сохранено в кэше - Похожие
“lā sī wéi jiā sī fù āi ěr sà sī mò lā lái sī wén huà zhī lǔ sà ér zi lián hé guó yīn sù fā zhǎn wěi yuán huì zhōng wén lā dīng měi zhōu” pú táo yá guā ěr tè lǐ ào nǔ niè sī āi sī tè lā dá,escritor ý periodista gǔ ba, é xīn shè duàn。
«La force morale de la culture russe sont un important développement en Amérique latine» par Walter Nunez Estrada, écrivain cubain pour RIA Novosti.
"Lực lượng đạo đức của nền văn hóa Nga là một sự phát triển quan trọng ở Mỹ Latinh" của Walter Nunez Estrada, nhà văn Cuba cho RIA Novosti.
"roshia no bunka no dōtoku teki na kyōsei teki ni raten'amerika de wa , jūyō na kaihatsu "u~orutānunyesuesutorāda, mosukuwa no kyūba no sakka desu .

Letter to PJ Patterson, Caricom's representative to the Montreal Conference on Haiti"Jamaican Observer"

BY NORMAN GIRVAN Wednesday, January 27, 2010


CONGRATULATIONS on your appointment as Caricom's representative on the committee organising the international conference for the reconstruction of Haiti being held in Montreal, Canada. Your experience with Haiti while being Jamaica's prime minister will be an invaluable asset in bringing a much-needed perspective that respects the Haitian people's own capabilties, leadership and initiative and the sovereignty of Haiti in the relief and rebuilding efforts.
I have been following events closely and wish to share the following observations with you.

* While we must commend the speed and generosity of the international response to the Haitian disaster, we should also recognise that the international community, as a donor to Haiti over more than two decades, also bears responsibility for ill-conceived and poorly conducted development, political interference, and unfulfilled promises in Haiti.

* I support the view that on this occasion the reconstruction of the country should be carried out in a way that is effective and accountable to all Haitians and assigns to Haitians themselves the responsibility for identifying their immediate and long-term needs and for creating and strengthening the structures required.
* I would argue strongly against an approach that is "security-centred"; that militarises the relief and rehabilitation effort; and that undermines Haitian ownership, intiative, responsibility and sovereignty. Rather, it should be based on the principles of solidarity, respect for their rights and respect for their country's sovereignty.
Here are some specific recommendations developed by the Canadian Council for International Co-operation, Oxfam Canada and Oxfam Québec which I fully endorse as being consistent with the above principles.
International asistance should:
(1) Prioritise the delivery of humanitarian assistance by civilian agencies.
(2) Protect the rights of vulnerable populations.
(3) Ensure Haitian leadership, ownership and decision-making.
(4) Focus on ending poverty.
Prioritise delivery of humanitarian assistance by civilian agencies
The challenges posed by the current operating environment in Haiti are huge, but reports indicate that aid efforts have been impeded by lack of access to airports and the slow delivery of supplies into the disaster site. The delivery and distribution of humanitarian assistance by civilian agencies should be considered the highest priority. There needs to be:
* A clear delineation of roles between civilian aid workers and military personnel involved in the relief effort. Military forces currently on the ground are providing crucial logistical and operational support, while civilian agencies have the experience and expertise needed to deliver assistance. Assistance currently being provided by military personnel should be handed over to civilian agencies as soon as possible, leaving the military to focus on providing logistical and operational support.
* Highest priority assigned to civilian humanitarian supplies for the arrival, off-loading and dispatching of cargo at Haiti's airports, ports and land borders.
* Coordination of relief operations should be the responsibility of the UN and the Haitiian authorities, and should be carried out in a way that rebuilds and strengthens the capacity of Haitian instituutions.
Ensure Haitian leadership, ownership, decision-making
Haitians themselves were first responders to the earthquake. Although local organisations have been affected by the earthquake, the considerable capacity and skills of Haitians themselves must be respected and included in relief efforts. Accordingly, foreign countries and international agencies should:
* Work to ensure Haitians themselves, wherever possible, are leading relief and reconstruction efforts.
* Fund Haitian organisations, particularly women's groups, in relief, recovery, and reconstruction.
* Seek opportunities for including the Haitian diaspora in relief and recovery efforts, particularly those with French and Creole language skills.
* Prioritise the rebuilding of Haitian government ministries and departments responsible for providing basic services.
Support Haitian community-driven efforts to improve the educational, food security and livelihood status of Haitian citizens.
Protect rights of vulnerable civilians
Haiti's vulnerable populations will require special protection measures. Thirty-six per cent of Haiti's population is under 15. People with disabilities, including those newly disabled by the earthquake, will find it difficult to access food, water and shelter. Women and girls are at an increased risk of sexual and gender-based violence. Donors, international agencies and civil society should:
* Ensure the principles of impartiality, neutrality, independence, and humanity guide the ongoing relief effort and that humanitarian and development activities are consistent with international humanitarian and human rights law.
* Prioritise the delivery of humanitarian assistance to vulnerable groups such as unaccompanied minors, the disabled, elderly, women and girls, and ensure that their needs and priorities are addressed in the planning for Haiti's recovery, reconstruction, and longer-term development. To this end:
* Ensure shelter and emergency camps are planned and built with disability access in mind.
* Include people with disabilities and organisations focused on disability rights in all initiatives and stages of relief, recovery, reconstruction, and longer-term development planning.
* Establish rapid response mechanisms and measures to ensure the rights of all Haitian children are protected with priorities on preventing child trafficking and a moratorium on new international adoptions.
* Encourage all countries contributing to MINUSTAH to train their personnel on preventing, protecting, and responding to sexual and gender-based violence prior to their deployment.
Ending poverty
Poverty and fragility in Haiti is multi-faceted and includes significant tensions between a wealthier elite and poorer Creole-speaking parts of the population. Much of Haiti's GDP is allocated to annual debt service payments amounting to some US$60-US$80 million a year, limiting Haiti's capacity to invest in its own development. Real and sustained recovery and reconstruction will not be possible without addressing Haiti's longer-term development, environmental and governance issues. We should press for:
* The immediate cancellation of all bilateral and multilateral debt owed by Haiti.
* The IMF to immediately convert the US$100 million emergency loan to Haiti into a grant provided without any conditions.
* Ensuring that longer-term assistance addresses both the immediate and structural causes of poverty in Haiti while working to provide relief and reconstruction to areas directly affected by the earthquake.
* Continuing to provide development aid to parts of the country not impacted by the earthquake, but still vulnerable to poverty.
* Supporting environmental programmes spanning the recovery-to-development spectrum aimed at agriculture and reforestation.
I strongly support the view that Haiti needs to be rebuilt "from the bottom up". International donors and the Group of Friends of Haiti must ensure the voices and the perspectives of Haiti's poor are heard and their rights respected. Haitian ownership and leadership, through the government, civil society, the diaspora, and the majority - women and men, girls and boys living in poverty, must be central in all efforts.


norman.girvan@gmail.com

Will America Finally Keep Its Promise to Haiti? by thebahamasweekly.com

You will not be forsaken; you will not be forgotten,” Obama has promised Haiti. ” In this, your hour of greatest need, America stands with you.”

Can we believe America this time? Where was America for the last 20 years?HaitiNGOsite-2-2.jpg
Where was the U.S. when Haiti’s poor were forced to cut down their forests to sell charcoal to barbecue joints in the Bahamas? Where was the U.S. when the infertile land and dire poverty pushed thousands into the nation’s capital, where they built ramshackle houses and found only more poverty? When Gonaives was destroyed in 2004, and then again in 2008, did we help rebuild it? Hardly.
When a popular albeit corrupt president was elected overwhelming by Haitians in 2000, did we try to purge the corruption? No, we cut off 500 billion in international aid instead. Then we supported a coup leading to years of instability and violence.
With all it’s tragedies, it is hard to see Haiti as anything but cursed. Yet if it is cursed, it is a human curse, not a divine curse. After decades of erratic American policy, Haiti’s suffering has become institutionalized.
A mother Theresa nun from India working in an Haitian orphanage first explained this to me. “Haiti is a factory of suffering,” she said, “and our product is misery.”
After every tragedy, America makes it’s promises. It pledges that Haiti will not be forgotten, that the future will be different. And yet it never changes. It’s hard to listen to the vetran CNN reporter talking over the same archival footage of people fighting for food handouts. “Look!” the reporter will say. “They are so poor! I’ve been in Afghanistan and Iraq and seen everything, but nothing like this. These people are poor!”
Will the incomprehensibly tragedy of this earthquake be different? Can we imagine a Haiti that is not a place of misery, but of opportunity? Today it may be impossible, as we try to digest the images of suffering flooding the Internet. But, maybe, just maybe, this horrible tragedy can finally lead America to wake up and really work for change in Haiti. If we can work to rebuild Afghanistan on the other side of the world, then surely we can work to rebuild Haiti right here in the Western Hemisphere.
Haiti deserves this opportunity, and it’s up to us to demand it.
We may not have created this earthquake, but there is much blood and dust on all of our hands.

It’s no coincidence that Haiti is both the poorest country in the western hemisphere and the most environmentally devastated.

Decades of poverty, population growth and near anarchy have stripped the countryside of its forests and split farms into small, infertile plots. “What you see in Port-au-Prince — the concentration of people in the slums, which creates violence, which creates disease — it’s because the people cannot produce more in the countryside,” Max Antoine, executive director of Haiti’s Presidential Commission on Border Development, told me when I visited the country in 2007.
Haiti has lost 98 percent of its forest cover.Deforestation had left the slopes too weak to be able to retain the downpour. But while some of the extra body count can be attributed to barren hillsides giving way, the true cause goes deeper. The country’s environmental troubles have become entangled in its economic and political problems, making all of them harder to fix.
By Stephan Faris Climate Change and the Environment CorrespondentGlobalPost – International News

Published: January 28, 2010 07:24 ET
ROME, Italy — Most people wouldn’t consider an earthquake to be an environmental issue. But while the tremors that shattered Haiti early this month have nothing to do with the island’s degradation, the extent of the suffering they unleashed is a direct result of the country’s ecological woes.

The reason can be seen from the sky. The devastated nation shares its island with the Dominican Republic, but misfortune always seems to strike on its side of a border that is demarcated by an abrupt shift from lush green to bare brown. While the Dominican Republic has largely managed to preserve its trees, Haiti has lost 98 percent of its forest cover.
In 2004, Hurricane Jeanne struck the Dominican Republic, and killed 18 people. In Haiti, where the storm didn’t even make landfall, more than 3,000 lives were lost under floodwater and mudslides. Deforestation had left the slopes too weak to be able to retain the downpour. But while some of the extra body count can be attributed to barren hillsides giving way, the true cause goes deeper. The country’s environmental troubles have become entangled in its economic and political problems, making all of them harder to fix.
It’s no coincidence that Haiti is both the poorest country in the western hemisphere and the most environmentally devastated. Decades of poverty, population growth and near anarchy have stripped the countryside of its forests and split farms into small, infertile plots. “What you see in Port-au-Prince — the concentration of people in the slums, which creates violence, which creates disease — it’s because the people cannot produce more in the countryside,” Max Antoine, executive director of Haiti’s Presidential Commission on Border Development, told me when I visited the country in 2007.
If deforestation has made the country poor, the resulting destitution exasperates the environmental degradation. Forests disappear. The slopes lose their soil. Farm land slips away. Entire villages disappear under mudslides. Roads and bridges are wiped away. The slums continue to swell. The country sinks deeper into poverty. Pressed to survive, another farmer chops down another tree to sell in the city as charcoal. “It’s not a vicious circle,” said Philippe Mathieu, the Haiti director for the Canadian charity Oxfam-Quebec. “It is a spiral. Each time you make a turn, you have less space.”
This month’s tragedy showed how tight that space has become. On Sunday, the official death toll climbed to 150,000, and the government suspects the figure could double. Many lost lives could have been avoided if buildings in the capital had been built to withstand earthquakes. Many others could have been saved if systems for emergency response and medical care had been in place. As a point of comparison: In 1989, an earthquake of exactly the same strength struck San Francisco at almost exactly the same time of day. The death toll was 63.
But unlike San Francisco, Port-au-Prince doesn’t have building codes. And if it did, its residents couldn’t afford to comply; most concrete blocks in the capital are handmade, with cheap, light materials. Even the buildings built by the United Nations couldn’t withstand the quake. As for coordinating an emergency response, Haiti wasn’t able to maintain much of a police force — never mind staffing a system of first responders or supporting a strong medical infrastructure. So when the earthquake struck, the residents of the capital were left pretty much on their own.
The way that Haiti’s challenges have interlocked has made them particularly difficult to overcome. The country has tree-planting programs, but they haven’t been able to keep up with the rate of deforestation; nor are they likely to as long as the poor depend on the charcoal trade for their income. Even before the earthquake, Haiti’s government was unable even to keep order on the streets of the capital. It’s no surprise that it couldn’t solve two seemingly intractable problems at once.
As the rescue effort in Port-au-Prince wraps up, the focus is turning to rebuilding the country. There’s talk of reconstructing its agriculture, its educational system, its housing, its infrastructure. The effort is expected to cost billions of dollars. It’s also expected to take decades. That’s enough time to grow some trees.
Stephan Faris is GlobalPost's environmental columnist. This article is based, in part, on his book, "Forecast: The Surprising — and Immediate — Consequences of Climate Change," which was published in paperback in September.

Haiti: Obama's Katrina. Many post-quake deaths could have been prevented."The Wall Street Journal"


Es obvio, al leer en este articulo que la capacidad logistica de Naciones Unidas y Estados Unidos esta muy por debajo de escenarios como el Katryna y el reciente terremoto de Haiti, independientemente del Presidente que gobierne, por todo lo cual debemos sacar sacar conclusiones para prevenir respuestas ante  la posibilidad de proximos escenarios similares en el area America.Gualterio Nunez Estrada, Sarasota, Florida, 34232.


"The U.S. response to the earthquake should be considered an embarrassment. Our operation received virtually no support from any branch of the U.S. government, including the State Department."
“měi guó yìng duì dì zhèn yīng gāi bèi rèn wéi shì gān gà。wǒ men de xíng dòng jī hū méi yǒu dé dào rèn hé bù mén de zhī chí shì měi guó zhèng fǔ, bāo kuò guó wù yuàn。”
"Những phản ứng Mỹ cho trận động đất nên được coi là một bối rối hoạt động của chúng tôi đã nhận được hầu như không có sự hỗ trợ từ bất kỳ chi nhánh của chính phủ Hoa Kỳ, trong đó có Bộ Ngoại giao.."
"La risposta degli Stati Uniti per il terremoto dovrebbe essere considerato un imbarazzo. La nostra operazione ha ricevuto praticamente nessun sostegno da tutte le filiali del governo degli Stati Uniti, tra cui il Dipartimento di Stato."
La réponse américaine au tremblement de terre devrait être considéré comme un embarras. Nos opérations ont reçu pratiquement aucun soutien dans toutes les agences du gouvernement américain, y compris le Département d'Etat."

"Реакция США на землетрясение должно рассматриваться смущения. Наша деятельность получила практически никакой поддержки от любой ветви власти США, в том числе Государственного департамента".

By SOUMITRA R. EACHEMPATI, DEAN LORICH AND DAVID HELFET

Soumitra R. Eachempati, MD, FACS



Associate Professor of Surgery


Associate Professor of Public Health


Weill Cornell Medical College


Associate Attending Surgeon


NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center


Phone: (212) 746-5312


Fax: (212) 746-0982


E-mail: sre2003@med.cornell.edu


Specialties: Trauma surgery, colon surgery, gallbladder surgery, gallstones, gastrointestinal surgery, general surgery, hernia surgery, laparoscopic gastrointestinal surgery, laparoscopic surgery, and pancreatic disease


Physician Profile: More about Soumitra R. Eachempati, MD

Four years ago the initial medical response to Hurricane Katrina was ill equipped, understaffed, poorly coordinated and delayed. Criticism of the paltry federal efforts was immediate and fierce.
Unfortunately, the response to the latest international disaster in Haiti has been no better, compounding the catastrophe.
On Tuesday, Jan. 12, a major earthquake overwhelmed a country one hour south of Miami whose inhabitants include American citizens and their relatives. Thanks to the Internet, pictures of the death and destruction were familiar to the world within hours, and the need for a massive influx of relief and specialized medical care was instantaneously apparent. While particular fatalities such as head injuries or massive blood loss are rarely treatable in mass casualty situations, delayed deaths from infection may be preventable.
On Wednesday, the day after the quake, we organized a relief team in cooperation with the U.S. State Department and Partners in Health (a Boston-based humanitarian organization) to provide emergency orthopedic and surgical care. We wanted to reach the local hospitals in Haiti immediately—but were only allowed by the U.S. military controlling the local airport to land in Port-au-Prince Saturday night. We were among the first groups there.

This delay proved tragic. Upon our arrival at the Haiti Community Hospital we found scores of patients with pus dripping out of open fractures and crush injuries. Some wounds were already infested with maggots. Approximately one-third of the victims were children. Most of the patients already had life-threatening infections, and all were dehydrated. Many had been waiting in the hospital compound for days without water, antibiotics or even pain medicine. The hospital smelled of infected, rotting limbs.
Our team spent the next 60 plus hours performing a variety of operations including orthopedic repairs to broken limbs and amputations. Sadly, a limb amputation in an underdeveloped country may be a death sentence.
 
We tallied over 100 operations between four surgeons and three orthopedic fellows (medical doctors getting additional specialty training), and evaluated perhaps 100 more patients for surgery. In contrast, a busy night in a New York City hospital might include four or five surgeries. Hindering the effort was an absence of ventilators, anesthetic machines, and oxygen tanks. There was no blood bank or laboratory, and a dearth of surgical instruments. Due to the lack of resources, we know many patients may still succumb to infection and other postoperative complications.
The U.S. response to the earthquake should be considered an embarrassment. Our operation received virtually no support from any branch of the U.S. government, including the State Department. As we ran out of various supplies we had no means to acquire more. There was no way to transfer patients we were poorly equipped to manage (such as a critically ill newborn with respiratory distress) to a facility where they would get better care. We were heartbroken having to tell patients suffering incredible pain we could not perform their surgery for at least a day.
Even after hearing gunshots outside the hospital, we had no protection for ourselves or our belongings—though we observed that a Jamaican medical team came with armed guards.
All these problems stemmed from ours being an isolated operation, a feature that may work in a humanitarian medical mission but not in a disaster situation. Later, as we were leaving Haiti, we were appalled to see warehouse-size quantities of unused medicines, food and other supplies at the airport, surrounded by hundreds of U.S. and international soldiers standing around aimlessly.
With an organized central command dedicated to medical relief, we could have done much better. A reconnaissance team, managed by government or U.N. officials in conjunction with medical and logistic specialists, could have immediately come to Haiti to evaluate local facilities. Preapproved groups of experienced civilian and military medical teams could have been consolidated in the U.S. from the Pensacola, Fla., military base or other locations, to avoid the airplane traffic clutter and delays that plagued landing of people and supplies into Port-au-Prince. Targeted teams with military support could then go to adequate facilities where they could be most effective.
After the disaster, certain roads should have been secured to allow the transfer of patients or supplies. A base hospital could have been established for patients requiring specialized services (such as a neonatal ICU and neurosurgery). A specialized, postoperative care center should have been established. In our case, however, we lacked the resources to ensure that patients were receiving basic wound care, antibiotics, nutrition or hydration.
The death toll from Katrina was under 2,000 people. Deaths in Haiti as of yesterday are at least 150,000. Untold numbers are dying of untreated, preventable infections. For all the outcry about Katrina, our nation has fared no better in this latest disaster.




Dr. Eachempati is a trauma surgeon and incoming president of the New York State Chapter of the American College of Surgeons. Drs. Lorich and Helfet are orthopedic surgeons. All practice at the Weill Cornell Medical Center in New York City.



Dr. Eachempati is involved in a busy clinical surgical practice, multiple research interests, and extensive teaching responsibilities to the medical students at the Weill Medical College. His research interests include topics pertinent to abdominal surgery, critical care, and trauma. He is board-certified by the American Board of Surgery in both General Surgery and Surgical Critical Care.





Dr. Eachempati attended college at Georgetown University in Washington, DC, where he received a Bachelor's of Science in chemistry in 1987. He then went to Northwestern University in Chicago, Illinois where he graduated in 1991 with an MD. He completed his general surgery internship and residency in 1996 from Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan. As a resident, Dr. Eachempati received multiple awards for teaching excellence. During this time, he was also selected to participate in an educational project in Hanoi, Vietnam where his group taught Vietnamese surgeons new techniques in laparoscopic surgery.
After residency, Dr. Eachempati worked at Duke University Hospital where he completed a fellowship in Surgical Critical Care in 1997. During this time, he published multiple studies in critical care and trauma surgery. Following this fellowship, he received an academic appointment as an Instructor of Surgery in the Department of Surgery at Duke University School of Medicine in 1997. Following one year as an attending surgeon at Duke, he moved to New York City to become an Assistant Professor of Surgery at the Weill Medical College of Cornell University.
Gender-based differences in outcome in patients with sepsis


SR Eachempati, L Hydo, PS Barie - Archives of Surgery, 1999 - Am Med Assoc

Hypothesis Among factors postulated to affect outcome in sepsis is the gender of the patient,

with a suggestion that females may have lower mortality. This study tested the hypothesis that

female patients admitted to the surgical intensive care unit with a documented infection ...

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Acute acalculous cholecystitis

PS Barie, SR Eachempati - Current Gastroenterology Reports, 2003 - Springer

Patterns of Clinical Illness Reports of acute cholecystitis complicating surgery, multiple

trauma, or burn injury are widespread. In patients with gall- stones, the incidence of postoperative

cholecystitis is similar for males and females. However, more than 80% of patients ...

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Interpretation of computed tomography does not correlate with laboratory or …

MJ Weyant, SR Eachempati, MA Maluccio, DE … - Surgery, 2000 - Elsevier

... confirmed acute appendicitis. Michael J. Weyant MD, Soumitra R. Eachempati MD,

Mary A. Maluccio MD, David E. Rivadeneira MD, Stephen R. Grobmyer MD, Lynn

J. Hydo BSN and Philip S. Barie MD. From the Department ...

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Factors influencing the development of decubitus ulcers in critically ill surgical …ig.com.br [PDF]

SR Eachempati, LJ Hydo, PS Barie - Critical care medicine, 2001 - journals.lww.com

Skip Navigation Links Home > September 2001 - Volume 29 - Issue 9 > Factors influencing the

development of decubitus ulcers in c... ... From the Department of Surgery, Weill Medical College

of Cornell University, Anne and Max A. Cohen Surgical ICU, New York-Presbyterian ...

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Chinese team provides medical care in quake-hit Haiti zhōng guó duì tí gōng yī liáo hù lǐ zāi qū hǎi dì

wāng yū róng(dì1cì zhǎng), tóu yī gè yī liáo duì, gōng chéng yǔ lìng wài liǎng gè



tuán duì chéng yuán zài shāng kǒu shàng de yī míng nán zǐ zài yī gè lín shí yī yuàn,


gāi xiǎo zǔ yǐ zài tài zǐ gǎng2010nián1yuè27rì。gāi xiǎo zǔ jiāng


liú zài hǎi dì shù zhōu xiàng nóng mín tí gōng jī běn yī liáo fú wù de xìng cún zhě


1yuè12rì dì dì zhèn。 (xīn huá shè fā)

Wang Yurong (1st L), head of a Chinese medical team, works with two other team members on the wound of an injured man at a makeshift hospital that the team has set up in Port-au-Prince Jan. 27, 2010. The team will stay in Haiti for weeks to provide basic medical care for survivors of the Jan. 12 earthquake. (Xinhua Photo)
Wang Yurong (1st L), head of a Chinese medical team, works with two other


team members on the wound of an injured man at a makeshift hospital that

the team has set up in Port-au-Prince Jan. 27, 2010. The team will

stay in Haiti for weeks to provide basic medical care for survivors

of the Jan. 12 earthquake. (Xinhua Photo)


Wang Yurong (1 L), jefe de un equipo médico chino, trabaja con otros dos


los miembros del equipo en la herida de un hombre herido en un hospital improvisado que

el equipo ha puesto en marcha en Port-au-Prince, 27 de enero 2010. El equipo

permanecer en Haití durante semanas para ofrecer atención médica básica para los sobrevivientes

del terremoto del 12 de enero (Xinhua Photo)

Vương Yurong (1st L), người đứng đầu một đội ngũ y tế của Trung Quốc, với hai tác phẩm khác


Đội tuyển thành viên vào vết thương của một người đàn ông bị thương tại một bệnh viện tạm mà

đội đã thiết lập ở Port-au-Prince Ngày 27 tháng 1 năm 2010. Các đội sẽ

ở Haiti cho tuần để cung cấp cho cơ sở chăm sóc y tế cho những người sống sót

của trận động đất 12 tháng 1 (Ảnh Xinhua)

Second plane with injured Haitians arrives in Tampa."Tampa Tribune", Florida.

A total of 22 patients were on board the Air Force flight that landed at Tampa International Airport on Jan. 27, 2010, including 21 Haitians and one U.S. citizen that was reportedly ill.


Published: January 28, 2010
TAMPA - A plane carrying 21 injured Haitians and an ill U.S. citizen arrived in Tampa on Wednesday night about 24 hours after 15 other evacuees from the quake-ravaged nation were flown in for treatment.

The latest arrivals ranged in age from 3 months to 47 years, including two in very critical and unstable condition.
An intensive care medical team tended to those patients during the flight from Haiti to Tampa International Airport.
Most of the patients had injuries similar to the first 15 evacuees in Tampa: broken bones, burns and spinal injuries with paralysis, Tampa Fire Rescue said.
The 3-month-old girl had serious burns on her face and upper body, the fire department said.
In addition to the patients, 11 other people, mostly family members of young patients, were aboard the C-130.
While in Haiti, seven of the patients were treated aboard the hospital ship U.S.S. Comfort; the others were treated at field hospitals.
Paramedics from Tampa Fire Rescue along with doctors and nurses from the Medical Reserve Corps evaluated the patients at the Tampa airport before they were taken to local hospitals.
One evacuee with serious spinal injuries was flown to Shands hospital in Gainesville.
Five of the patients went to Tampa General Hospital. The rest went to other hospitals in the Tampa Bay area.
Tampa General admitted nine evacuees Tuesday with conditions ranging from fair to serious, hospital spokesman John Dunn said Wednesday of the first group. Some have burns; others have more serious trauma, Dunn said.
"They were very badly injured patients. Many of them are in the intensive care unit," emergency medicine physician Catherine Carrubba said.
Those patients range in age from 4 to 43. Employees who speak Creole are translating for doctors and nurses, Dunn said.
Those 15 evacuees arrived on a C-130 about 9 p.m. Tuesday. Two people on the flight were military personnel requiring medical attention. Most of the injured had broken bones; some had undergone amputations, officials said.
"When they landed, they were quiet, they were thankful, they were very respectful," Carrubba said. "It was a group of people that was very relieved to see that there was some civilization at the other end of their journey."
Celillon Alteme, a chaplain at Tampa General Hospital, served as a translator for some of the patients. Alteme said one of the patients had stopped to get gas for a car when the earthquake struck. The vehicle burst into flames.
"My hope for them is to get better, physically and emotionally, before they can get home," Alteme said.
Most of the Haitian citizens will need to find temporary accommodations in Tampa while they recuperate, Alteme said.
Other hospitals that took in evacuees include University Community Hospital, St. Joseph's Hospital and the James A. Haley Veterans' Hospital in Tampa and Bayfront Medical Center in St. Petersburg, authorities said

Wednesday, January 27, 2010

NASA making 3-D maps of the deformation caused by the earthqueke in Haiti.




NASA is sending a radar-equipped jet to Haiti to make 3-D maps of the deformation caused by the magnitude 7 earthquake on Jan. 21 and multiple aftershocks that continue to occur.
The Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar, or UAVSAR, was already scheduled to head to South America aboard a modified Gulfstream III to study volcanoes, forests and Mayan ruins. NASA added the island of Hisapaniola to the itinerary to help study faults in both Haiti and the Dominican Republic.
“UAVSAR will allow us to image deformations of Earth’s surface and other changes associated with post-Haiti earthquake geologic processes, such as aftershocks, earthquakes that might be triggered by the main earthquake farther down the fault line, and the potential for landslides,” JPL’s Paul Lundgren, the principal investigator for the Hispaniola overflights, said in a press release Wednesday.
“Because of Hispaniola’s complex tectonic setting, there is an interest in determining if the earthquake in Haiti might trigger other earthquakes at some unknown point in the future,” Lundgren said, “either along adjacent sections of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault that was responsible for the main earthquake, or on other faults in northern Hispaniola, such as the Septentrional fault.”
The UAVSAR, which left NASA’s Dryden Flight Research Center in Edwards, Calif., on Jan. 25, will flyover Hispaniola multiple times this week and again in early February.
Since November 2009, the radar has been mapping the San Andreas and other major faults in California. The 3-D data will help scientists better understand the state’s seismic risk.
UAVSAR works by sending microwaves to the ground from a pod under the aircraft flying at about 41,000 feet and recording the return signal. The differences in the times it takes waves to return from points on the ground to the plane gives information about the topography. By hitting the same target from different angles as the plane flighs overhead, a 3-D image can be made. Very precise details about ground motion can be calculated by flying over the same area later, giving scientists information about strain buildup on a fault.
The Hispaniola data will be made public in a few weeks. The Dominican Republic flyovers could help scientists understand future earthquakes on the Septrional fault.
Images: 1) NASA’s UAVSAR airborne radar will create 3-D maps of earthquake faults over wide swaths of Haiti (red shaded area) and the Dominican Republic (yellow shaded area)./NASA. 2) Dave Bullock/Wired.com
Read More http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2010/01/nasa-radar-to-map-haiti-faults/#ixzz0drIbDe1V

Africa: Continent Called to Aid Haiti's Socio-Economic Recovery.

Due to its own history of receiving assistance in time of need, Africa now needs to play a role in the global arena by taking an active role in Haiti's long term socio economic reconstruction, NEPAD Business Foundation (NBF) has said.

"It is time for Africa to play a meaningful role in assisting Haiti to rebuild its economic infrastructure. Support in industry, trade and agriculture will be central to the recovery and renewal of the Haitian nation," states NBF Operations Chairman, Stanley Subramoney.
Subramoney said, "The tenacity and resourcefulness of the African people will be invaluable in creating a sustainable impact. This is indeed a difficult time for the people of Haiti, but it is a time to face down adversity and proclaim that together with the rest of the world they will overcome these enormous challenges and rise to being a proud nation."
In aid of recovery, beyond relief, The NEPAD Business Foundation has pledged its allegiance to the 'Africa for Haiti' campaign, and commits its resources to uniting African businesses in finding long-term sustainable solutions that will help rebuild Haiti's socio-economic infrastructure beyond this emergency phase.
The NBF will mobilise its members, private sector, government and donor institutions - to contribute to the fund that is aimed at reconstruction.
The funds will be managed by two key non-governmental organizations, Trust Africa and African Monitor.
Graca Machel, who has been a consistent leader in socio-economic concerns in Africa and is heading up this initiative, says that in six months the campaign will send representatives to Haiti.
She says they will firstly, "show the face and voice of African solidarity and secondly, fact-find and identify which are the community organisations and NGOs we can work with so we can channel our support to them, and leave them to be the major implementers of the programmes that we will agree together."
Copyright © 2010 Catholic Information Service for Africa. All rights reserved. Distributed by AllAfrica Global Media (allAfrica.com).
AllAfrica - All the Time

Tuesday, January 26, 2010

I visited hospitals and clinics in Port-au-Prince, with thousands of people waiting for care, and amputations happening with ibuprofen or Motrin, if patients were lucky.


Congressman Lincoln Diaz-Balart is a major leader of the caribbean lobby in Washington that advocates the TPS for Haitians.

"Let the Haitians In"



Posted on Jan 26, 2010

By Amy Goodman
Jean Montrevil was shackled, imprisoned, about to be sent to Haiti. It was Jan. 6, days before the earthquake that would devastate Haiti, the poorest nation in the Western Hemisphere. Montrevil came to the U.S. with a green card in 1986 at the age of 17. Twenty years ago, still a teenager, he was convicted of possession of cocaine and sent to prison for 11 years. Upon release, he married a U.S. citizen; he has four U.S.-citizen children, owns a business, pays taxes and is a legal, permanent resident. He is a well-respected Haitian New York community activist. But because of his earlier conviction, he was on an immigration supervision program, requiring him to check in with an immigration official every two weeks. On Dec. 30, during his routine visit, he was immediately detained and told he would be deported to Haiti. A fellow detainee bound for Haiti had a fever. That man’s illness halted the flight, and then the earthquake struck.
The devastating toll of the Jan. 12 earthquake in Haiti continues to mount. Most efforts to rescue people from the rubble have ended. More than 150,000 people have been buried, some in makeshift graves near the ruins of the homes where they died, but many in unmarked, mass graves at Titanyen, the site of massacres during previous dictatorships and coups. More than 1 million people are homeless out of Haiti’s population of 9 million. The stench of decaying bodies is still pervasive in the capital city of Port-au-Prince as well as in outlying towns, which, two weeks out, have seen little outside help. It was painful to see the mass of aid stockpiled at the airport. The Haitians need it now. For example, I saw pallets with thousands of bottles of Aquafina water there. Hopeful when a truck arrived to load up, I asked where it was headed. “To the U.S. Embassy,” I was told.
One of the principal sources of national income in Haiti is the flow of remittances from the Haitian diaspora, whose cash, wired to family members back in Haiti, amounts to one-third of Haiti’s gross national product. For years, after four major hurricanes and massive flooding, the Haitian community has simply been asking to be treated like Nicaraguans, Hondurans and Salvadorans in similar circumstances, to receive Temporary Protected Status (TPS). TPS allows people to stay in the U.S., and legally work, during times of armed conflict or natural disaster, and is a critical element of any humane policy. Finally, following frantic grass-roots lobbying after the earthquake, the U.S. government extended TPS to Haitians.
But TPS is not enough. Haitians need to be allowed into the United States, legally, compassionately and immediately. I visited hospitals and clinics in Port-au-Prince, with thousands of people waiting for care, and amputations happening with ibuprofen or Motrin, if patients were lucky.

A woman who has had her arm amputated lies back at the Centre Hospitalier De La Renaissance in Port-au-Prince (17 January 2010)
 Ira Kurzban, a Miami-based attorney who represented Haiti for years, says the U.S. must let in those immediately who need medical care, that far too few of the injured have been brought to the U.S. In addition, he told me, the U.S. should bring many more people from Haiti, including all those people who had approved petitions by family members. It’s about 70,000 people. These people have been approved, but are essentially in a multiyear waiting line to move to the U.S. Kurzban compared the historical willingness and ability of the U.S. to accept Cuban refugees with what he calls a policy of “containment” with Haiti, preventing people from leaving and blocking the shores with the Coast Guard. The first thing I saw when flying in to Port-au-Prince days after the earthquake were the Coast Guard cutters. They weren’t bringing aid in, or carrying people out. They were preventing Haitians from leaving.
National Nurses United, the largest nurses union in the U.S., has 12,000 registered nurses willing to travel to Haiti to help, but they say they can’t get assistance from the Obama administration. So they called filmmaker Michael Moore. He told me this week: “This is pretty pathetic if you’re having to call me. I mean, you are the largest nurses union ... and you can’t get a call in to the White House?” The NNU is seeking individual sponsors through its Web site.
Grass-roots and church groups in New York City demanded freedom for Jean Montrevil, and he was released. It is that kind of solidarity that is now needed by millions of Haitians, here and in Haiti, suffering the greatest catastrophe in their history.
Denis Moynihan contributed research to this column.
Amy Goodman is the host of “Democracy Now!,” a daily international TV/radio news hour airing on more than 800 stations in North America. She is the author of “Breaking the Sound Barrier,” recently released in paperback and now a New York Times best-seller.
© 2010 Amy Goodman



The President Preval moved to a tent in Port-au-Prince.Các Tổng thống Preval chuyển tới một lều ở thủ đô của Haiti ...

Các Tổng thống Preval chuyển tới một lều ở thủ đô của Haiti ...

Theo phóng viên CNN ở Haiti, Tổng thống Preval trong tình đoàn kết với nhân dân của ông chuyển đến một trại ở phía trước trụ sở đổ nát của chính quyền quốc gia.
Le Président Préval a déménagé dans une tente dans la capitale d'Haïti ...A woman stands near a makeshift refugee camp near downtown Port-au-Prince

Selon le correspondant de CNN en Haïti, le Président Préval en solidarité avec son peuple déménagé dans une tente en face du quartier général en ruine du gouvernement national.
The President Preval moved to a tent in the capital of Haiti ...

According to the CNN correspondent in Haiti, President Preval in solidarity with his people moved to a tent in front of the ruined headquarters of the national government.
zǒng tǒng pǔ léi wǎ ěr bān dào zhàng péng shǒu dū hǎi dì...

jù měi guó yǒu xiàn diàn shì xīn wén wǎng jì zhě zài hǎi dì zǒng tǒng pǔ léi wǎ ěr, shēng yuán tā de rén bān dào zhàng péng qián miàn de pò huài zǒng bù de guó jiā zhèng fǔ。
daitōryō wa garushiapurevu~aruhaichino shuto de , tento ni idō suru ...

haichi de wa , CNNno kisha wa , daitōryō no garushiapurevu~arue no rentai no kare no hitobito ni yoru to , kokka seifu no dainashi ni honsha no mae ni tento ni idō shi mashi ta .
Президент Преваль переехали в палатки в столице Гаити ...

Как сообщает корреспондент CNN в Гаити, президент Преваль в знак солидарности со своим народом переехали в палатки перед разрушенной штаб-квартире Национального управления.
pide otras 200.000 para los desplazados

MADRID, 26 Ene. (EUROPA PRESS) -

El presidente de Haití se traslada a una tienda de campaña

El presidente haitiano, René Préval, anunció que trasladará su oficina a una tienda de campaña junto a lo que queda del Palacio Presidencial "en solidaridad con el pueblo" y pidió urgentemente 200.000 tiendas de campaña adicionales para el país para ayudar a instalar a los cientos de miles de personas desplazadas por el terremoto del pasado 12 de enero.
En declaraciones al 'Miami Herald', Préval indicó que actualmente no cuenta con espacios adecuados para su oficina en el Palacio, que se vino abajo con el terremoto, por lo que se instalará en una tienda de campaña que le ha ofrecido la ONU.
Por otra parte, el presidente haitiano denunció la falta de tiendas de campaña en el país, donde se creía que había 20.000 pero se descubrió que en realidad sólo había unas 3.500. Por ello, pidió a la comunidad internacional que envíen urgentemente 200.000 tiendas de campaña, antes de que empiece la temporada de lluvias en mayo, así como 26 millones raciones alimentarias para las víctimas.
El Gobierno haitiano ha anunciado un plan para realojar a 400.000 afectados por el terremoto fuera de Puerto Príncipe y además está dando facilidades de transporte para todos aquellos que quieren desplazarse a otros puntos del país. Según la Oficina de Coordinación Humanitaria de la ONU (OCHA), unas 130.000 personas se han beneficiado de esta ayuda y se han trasladado al norte y al suroeste.
Por otra parte, unos 6.000 haitianos de la capital se están beneficiando ya del programa 'dinero a cambio de trabajo' del Programa de la ONU para el Desarrollo (PNUD) ayudando a retirar escombros o reparando las calles. El programa, que se espera llegue a incluir a 220.000 personas, permite que sus beneficiarios ganen hasta 5 dólares al día.
La ONU hizo el pasado 15 de enero un llamamiento solicitando 575 millones de dólares para ayudar a Haití a superar los efectos del terremoto, que ha dejado ya 150.000 muertos confirmados. Según indicó Naciones Unidas ayer en un comunicado, hasta el viernes pasado se habían recibido 241 millones de dólares, es decir, aproximadamente el 40% de los fondos solicitados.
Cuba envía epidemiólogos a Haití

26 de Enero de 2010, 07:05pm ET
LA HABANA (AP) - Un grupo de 64 cubanos expertos en epidemiología llegaron a Puerto Príncipe para con la misión de contrarrestar la aparición de una epidemia propiciada por las precarias condiciones sanitarias prevalecientes en la ciudad devastada el 12 de enero por un terremoto.
La prensa oficial cubana informó que el contingente llegó el lunes a Haití e incluye ocho epidemiólogos y 56 técnicos en la materia con equipamiento para combatir vectores como mosquitos y ratas que medran tras la catástrofe.
El grupo se sumará a más de 400 médicos cubanos que ya laboran en Haití.
"Lo que pretendemos es disminuir el riesgo de que haya transmisión de epidemias y reducir al máximo el impacto negativo que estas puedan tener", indicó el experto dijo Manuel Santín, el director nacional de Epidemiología de Cuba.
Entre las enfermedades que comenzaron a circular dos semanas después del terremoto figuran las diarreas, infecciones respiratorias, dermatológicas, tétanos y casos de meningitis, según los reportes periodísticoLos países del hemisferio han contribuido de distintas maneras con Haití después del terremoto. El presidente de República Dominicana Leonel Fernández agradeció en un discurso a sus compatriotas porque "por medio de sus desvelos, su ayuda y cooperación pusieron de relieve ante el mundo los más nobles sentimientos de que es capaz del pueblo dominicando".
República Dominicana, por ser el país vecino, fue el primero en acudir en ayuda de Haití y se convirtió en un puente vital para el envío de ayuda humantaria internacional hacia Puerto Príncipe ante el deterioro y congestionamiento de las terminales aéreas y marítimas haitianas.
Aparte de enviar ayuda, los países iberoamericanos también reportaron varias víctimas en Haití, las cuales son: Argentina: un muerto; Brasil: 22 muertos y un desaparecido; Colombia: tres desaparecidos; Chile: dos muertos; Costa Rica: dos desaparecidos; El Salvador: dos desaparecidos; España: 4 muertos; México: dos muertos y 31 desaparecidos; Perú: un muerto; República Dominicana: 24 muertos y 24 desaparecidos; y Uruguay: un muerto y dos desaparecidos.
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Los países latinoamericanos, en el epicentro de los terremotos

El seísmo de Haití dispara las alarmas en la región, atravesada por tres fallas

V. CALDERÓN / A. - M. HOLLAIN - Madrid - 27/01/2010
El seísmo que devastó Haití el pasado 12 de enero, el más poderoso en 200 años, disparó las alarmas en Latinoamérica, una de las regiones del mundo con mayor actividad sísmica. Al menos tres de las fallas geológicas más grandes del mundo atraviesan el continente, y sus movimientos han dejado un rastro devastador. La mayor fuerza liberada por un terremoto desde que existe la escala de Richter en 1935 se produjo precisamente en la región: la pequeña ciudad de Valdivia (Chile) registró un seísmo de una magnitud de 9,5. La zona de riesgo cruza varias de las principales ciudades latinoamericanas, donde, ante la impredecible voluntad de la naturaleza, sólo queda adoptar medidas de prevención, con distintos resultados en cada país.
La falla de Enriquillo causó el devastador terremoto que asoló Haití el pasado 12 de enero. En Norteamérica está la falla de San Andrés que, con una longitud de aproximadamente 1.287 kilómetros, discurre a través de California, en Estados Unidos, y de Baja California, en México, y ha causado decenas de seísmos en la zona. Y la falla de San Ramón se encuentra al oriente de Santiago de Chile y tiene una extensión de unos 25 kilómetros; sin embargo, su relativamente corta longitud no hace mella en su capacidad destructiva. Se encuentra a poca profundidad y por ello es capaz de producir terremotos superiores a los 7,0.
El 13 de mayo de 1647 se produjo un terremoto de una magnitud tal que destrozó la capital chilena. La mayoría de los países de la región han puesto en marcha campañas de educación entre la población, que incluyen en muchas ocasiones los simulacros de terremotos, pero las medidas de prevención no son asequibles para los 586 millones de habitantes de la zona, donde tres de cada cuatro habitantes viven en una ciudad.
¿Está la región preparada para enfrentar un terremoto? "No se puede estar preparado del todo para un evento así", comenta Jaime Reigosa, coordinador de la Red Sismológica Nacional de Colombia. "Los Gobiernos pueden tomar medidas y emprender campañas educativas de prevención que pueden mitigar los efectos de un seísmo", añade y explica que la zona colombiana que tiene la mayor actividad sísmica es la que tiene costa con el Pacífico. El especialista advierte de que, si bien se han tomado algunas medidas de prevención y se han invertido recursos para evitar los efectos destructores de un temblor, la preparación en su país es "mejorable". "Es necesario que se adopten códigos para que los edificios que no estén construidos con normas que garanticen su resistencia puedan mejorarse para enfrentar una emergencia de este tipo", asegura. "El énfasis lo tenemos que poner en la autoconstrucción, en la divulgación de qué materiales hay que usar y cómo se tiene que edificar. La construcción en adobe, por ejemplo, que hasta hace unos años aún era muy común en Chile, ahora está prohibida por ley", subraya desde su despacho Sergio Barrientos Parra, director científico del Servicio Sismológico de la Universidad de Chile.
A lo largo de 2010, el país andino modernizará y ampliará sus equipos de monitoreo y prevención de seísmos gracias a un presupuesto de 18 millones de dólares, aprobado por el Gobierno el año pasado. "Ahora mismo estamos en proceso de compra que esperamos que finalice en marzo. A mediados del año, previsiblemente, comenzaremos con la instalación de 65 estaciones de última generación, capaces de detectar hasta temblores muy chicos, que retransmitirán vía satélite en tiempo real a nuestro centro en la Universidad de Chile", afirma Parra. Como estos instrumentos se saturan con terremotos de grandes dimensiones, colocarán también "200 equipos para medir movimientos fuertes que proporcionarán una información muy valiosa a los ingenieros. Así podremos evaluar el nivel de aceleración en todas partes porque cada subsuelo responde de muy distinta manera, según se trate de roca o sedimento, por ejemplo", agrega.
El Servicio Sismológico de la Universidad de Chile cuenta también con el apoyo de la Dirección General de Aeronáutica Civil (DGAC). "Tenemos un convenio con los aeropuertos chilenos que nos dejan usar sus canales de comunicación", destaca el científico. Otra pieza clave del proyecto es el sistema de posicionamiento global. 140 estaciones de este tipo a lo largo de la costa chilena vigilarán su deformación en tiempo real. "Esto nos permitirá saber cuál es el tamaño del terremoto y si dará lugar a un tsunami", indica Parra.
El borde occidental de América del Sur es el de mayor actividad sísmica en el mundo. En Perú, la zona de riesgo se extiende "desde el departamento de Tacna, en el extremo sureste del país, hasta el de Tumbes, en el extremo noroeste", explica por teléfono Hernando Tavera, director de la sección de sismología del Instituto Geofísico del Perú. De los muchos terremotos que se han registrado en esa región, dos destacan por la magnitud de los tsunamis que causaron. "El de 1746, que destruyó Lima y arrasó el puerto del Callao, produjo un tsunami con olas de 16 metros de altura. Y el de 1868, que asoló sobre todo las ciudades de Arequipa y Moquegua, en Perú, y de Arica e Iquique, en Chile, provocó un tsunami con olas de 11 metros de altura", apunta Tavera.
El Instituto Geofísico es el responsable del monitoreo de la actividad sísmica en Perú. "Tenemos 40 equipos de última tecnología repartidos por todo el país", comenta el científico. Estos aparatos, sin embargo, no parecen suficientes para una reacción eficaz a la pugna de las placas tectónicas. "En 2001 y 2007, durante los dos últimos grandes seísmos en Perú, a pesar de tener equipos de monitoreo modernos, la comunicación falló. Cuando ocurren terremotos importantes, las líneas telefónicas se caen, pero seguimos usándolas como vía de aviso", cuenta Tavera. "Para solucionar ese problema, el Instituto pidió al Gobierno una inversión de un millón de dólares, con el fin de poder establecer una red satelital de alerta temprana de tsunamis y seísmos". En el caso de Perú, cuando ocurre un terremoto cuyo epicentro se encuentra en el mar, necesita 15 o 20 minutos para llegar a la costa. Pero la red de satélites tarda sólo cinco minutos en hacer saltar la alarma, según el director del Instituto Geofísico. Son minutos vitales que se ganan para evacuar a la población costera y avisar a los marineros. "Aún así, el Gobierno no nos brinda esos medios de protección necesarios", se lamenta el experto peruano.
Sobre otras medidas de prevención, el geólogo relata que "hay una norma de construcción antisísmica que rige en todo el país y que se aplica en el caso de grandes inmuebles. Pero el común de la gente construye sus propias casas donde puede, sin respetar esos reglamentos". "Los cursos de prevención, sobre construcción y materiales adecuados, impartidos por el Instituto Nacional de Defensa Civil sólo llegan a cierto nivel de la población", añade.
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