Saturday, December 5, 2009

Psichologist and neuroscience in United States have different point of view in clinical procedures.



Most of the video games top in the market are "dog Pavlov's" based adressed to customers that are learning about sex role orientation during brain closing process to adult age.


The babalawo is a traditional psiquiatry in the cuban community based on sex rol.

Mas alla de lo que propuso Jung, cualquier tratamiento clinico sin credito en neurociencias pude ser definido como una practica esoterica de la cual no se sabe cual sera su resultado a menos que sea validado en Congreso Medico...
Beyond what Jung suggested any clinical treatment without credit in neuroscience could be defined as an esoteric practice which is not known what the outcome will be unless it is validated in medical congresses
超出榮格提出任何臨床治療神經沒有信用可以定義為深奧的做法,就是不知道會有什麼結果,除非它在醫學大會審定 ..
を超えてチョン神経に信用することなく、臨床治療を提示したものに限り、医療会議で..検証され、結果がどうなるか知られていない難解な慣行として定義することが
Au-delà de ce que Jung a suggéré un traitement médical sans avoir de crédit en neurosciences pourrait être défini comme une pratique ésotérique qui ne sait pas quel sera le résultat si elle est validée lors de congrès médicaux ..
За то, что Юнг предложил каких-либо клинических лечение без кредита в неврологии может быть определена как эзотерические практики, который не знал, что результат будет, если оно не подтверждено в медицинских конгрессах ..
Fragmentos de un articulo que encontre en...Excerpts from an article I found in "Neuroscience for kids"web page by Dr. Erich Chudler, University of Washington
Mirror Neurons, Embodied Simulation,
and the Neural Basis of Social Identification
Vittorio Gallese, M.D.
University of Parma
Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 19:519–536, 2009
Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
ISSN: 1048-1885 print / 1940-9222 online
DOI: 10.1080/10481880903231910

"The discovery of mirror neurons and of other mirroring mechanisms in the human brain shows
that the very same neural substrates are activated when these expressive acts are both executed and
perceived. Thus, we have a neurally instantiated we-centric space. I posit that a common underlying
functional mechanism—embodied simulation—mediates our capacity to share the meaning
of actions, intentions, feelings, and emotions with others, thus grounding our identification with
and connectedness to others. Social identification, empathy, and “we-ness” are the basic ground of
our development and being.
The paper is structured as follows. I summarize recent neuroscientific evidence shedding light
on the neural mechanisms likely underpinning important aspects of intersubjectivity and social
cognition. This evidence has accumulated since our discovery in the macaque monkey premotor
cortex of a particular class of neurons known as “mirror neurons.” I discuss this evidence in relation
to empathy and introduce my model of embodied simulation, a crucial functional mechanism
of intersubjectivity by means of which the actions, emotions, and sensations of others are mapped
by the same neural mechanisms that are normally activated when we act or experience similar
emotions and sensations. I then present a concise overview of developmental psychology research
showing the early onset of social identification. I finally sketch some implications of this perspective
for psychoanalysis. My main point is that embodied simulation provides a model of potential
interest not only for our understanding of how interpersonal relations work or might be pathologically
disturbed, but also for our understanding of interpersonal relations within the psychoanalytic
setting.
MIRROR NEURONS
Mirror neurons are premotor neurons that fire both when an action is executed and when it is observed
being performed by someone else. (Gallese, Fadiga, Fogassi, & Rizzolatti, 1996;
Rizzolatti, Fadiga, Gallese, & Fogassi, 1996). Neurons with similar properties were also discovered
in a sector of the posterior parietal cortex (Fogassi et al., 2005; Gallese, Fogassi, Fadiga, &
Rizzolatti, 2002). The same motor neuron that fires when the monkey grasps a peanut is also activated
when the monkey observes another individual performing the same action.
Action observation causes in the observer the automatic activation of the same neural mechanism
triggered by action execution. The novelty of these findings is the fact that, for the first time,
a neural mechanism allowing a direct mapping between the visual description of a motor act and
its execution has been identified. This mapping system provides a parsimonious solution to the
problem of translating the results of the visual analysis of an observed movement—in principle,
520 GALLESE
devoid of meaning for the observer—into something that the observer is able to understand
(Gallese et al., 1996; Rizzolatti et al., 1996).
The proposal that mirror neurons’ activity reflects an internal motor description of the perceived
action’s meaning rather than a mere a visual description of its features has been demonstrated
in two seminal experiments.
In the first study, Umiltà et al. (2001) found a subset of premotor mirror neurons that discharged
also during the observation of partially hidden actions, coding the action outcome even in
the absence of the complete visual information about it. Macaque monkey’s mirror neurons therefore
respond to observed acts not exclusively on the basis of their visual description, but on the basis
of the anticipation of their final goal-state, simulated through the activation of its motor neural
motor “representation” in the observer’s premotor cortex.
Those data, of course, do not exclude the coexistence of a system that visually analyzes and describes
the acts of others, most likely through the activation of extra-striate visual neurons sensitive
to biological motion. However, such visual analysis per se is most likely insufficient to provide
an understanding of the observed act. Without reference to the observer’s internal “motor
knowledge,” this description is devoid of factual meaning for the observing individual (Gallese
et al., 2009).
A second study (Kohler et al., 2002) demonstrated that mirror neurons also code the actions’
meaning on the basis of their related sound. A particular class of F5 mirror neurons (“audio-visual
mirror neurons”) responds not only when the monkey executes and observes a given hand action,
but also when it just hears the sound typically produced by the same action. These neurons respond
to the sound of actions and discriminate between the sounds of different actions, but do not
respond to other similarly interesting sounds such as arousing noises, or monkeys’ and other animals’
vocalizations.
Mirror neurons’ activity reveals the existence of a mechanism through which perceived events
as different as sounds, or images, are nevertheless coded as similar to the extent that they represent
the assorted sensory aspects of the motor act’s goal. It has been proposed that mirror neurons by
mapping observed, implied, or heard goal-directed motor acts on their motor neural substrate in
the observer’s motor system allow a direct form of action understanding, through a mechanism of
embodied simulation (Gallese, 2005a,b, 2006; Gallese et al., 2009).
Mirror Neurons(
Completed article, click here:http://www.unipr.it/arpa/mirror/pubs/pdffiles/Gallese/Gallese%20PD%202009a.pdf)

My blogger opinion to this matter:

Today, when I get up at 6 a.m. the first thing I did faith review the website of my friend Erick Chudler, a neuroscientist at the University of Washington(1), a source of wisdom that I recommend to everyone if you want to know the world we live and why they behave in certain ways, in short, that we are and think as we think and above all, as we tend our own thinking traps that lead to failure or victory.
There I found a source on the current state of clinical practice of psychologists in the U.S. and it seems that leaves much to be desired.(2)
First, it does not require a special examination in science and language for admission to schools from psychology students if we take into consideration the deficiencies in teaching science and reading in the American school system "sine qua non" clinical thinking about a patient have not credit.
Reference: National Science Foundation: Galterio Nunez Estrada
[PDF] A NATIONAL ACTION PLANPage 1. Page 2. Page 3. NSB-07-114 A NATIONAL ACTION PLAN FOR ADDRESSING THECRITICAL NEEDS OF THE US SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, ... www.nsf.gov/nsb/documents/2007/stem_action.pdf - 2008-09-04


"Within the current education system, U.S. students are not obtaining the STEM knowledge college-level courses. they need to succeed. As Rising Above the Gathering Storm notes, "The danger exists that Americans may not know enough about science, technology, or mathematics to contribute significantly to, or fully benefit from, the knowledge-based economy that is already taking shape around us."6 Almost 30 percent of students in their first year of college are forced to take remedial science and math classes because they are not prepared to take college-level..."(Is easy to observed in the american teenagers a mental set based on binary meaning onto top video games vision of life in the market, when they afford the university the binary way of meaning will be increased by test computer procedure and they became graduated with so many "mirror"(a) between them and the reality reinforced by the grecolatine culture in the brain(Refered to Luria(a) from Elkhonon Golberg book)..Note.- Gualterio Nunez Estrada.)



(...)''...why doctors "hate science," meaning why do many resist evidence-based medicine. The problem is even worse in psychology. For one thing, says Baker, clinical psychologists are "deeply ambivalent about the role of science" and "lack solid science training"—a result of science-lite curricula, especially in Psy.D. programs. Also, one third of patients get better no matter what therapy (if any) they have, "and psychologists remember these successes, attributing them, wrongly, to the treatment. It's very threatening to think our profession is a charade." (Taken from SHARON BEGLEY BEGLEY article )(2)

Second, because unlike in Canada and other countries in the United States these professionals do not have to validate the title every three years under the supervision of psychiatrists and neurologists.

Third, because 90% of knowledge about. Functioning of the brain have been discovered in the last ten years, requires that anyone who has to do with clinical treatment has updated scientific academic credit if even we know that the type of food we eat (diet) influences our behavior.(much more a clinical tratement that influence the brain, even with no medical prescription) Gualterio Nunez Estrada, Sarasota, Florida, 34233.
Hoy, cuando me levante a la 6 am lo primero que hice fe revisar la pagina web del querido amigo Erick Chudler, neurocientifico de la Universidad de Washington, una fuente de sabiduria que recomiendo a todo el mundo si quiere conocer el mundo en que vive y el porque se comporta de determinada manera, en fin, por que somos como somos y pensamos como pensamos y sobre todo, como nuestro propio pensamiento nos tiende trampas que nos llevan al fracaso o a la victoria.Alli me encontre una fuente sobre el estado actual de la practica clinica de los sicologos en Estados Unidos y todo parece indicar que deja mucho que desear.Primero, porque no se exige un examen especial en ciencias y lenguaje para el ingreso en las escuelas de sicologia si tomamos en consideracion las deficiencias en la ensenanza de ciencias y lectura en el sistema escolar norteamericano "sine qua non" el pensamiento clinico sobre un paciente carece de credito.Segundo: porque a diferencia de Canada y otros paises, en Estados Unidos estos profesionales no tienen que validar el titulo cada tres anos bajo la supervision de siquiatras y neurologos.Tercero: debido a que el 90% de los conocimientos sobre el .funcionamiento del cerebro han sido descubiertos en los ultimos diez anos, se requiere que todo el que tenga que ver con un tratamiento clinico posea un credito academico cientifico actualizado si incluso ya sabemos que el tipo de comida que comemos(la dieta)influye en el comportamiento.
Aujourd'hui, quand je me lève à 6 heures la première chose que j'ai fait foi consulter le site Web de mon ami Erick Chudler, un neuroscientifique de l'Université de Washington, une source de sagesse que je conseille à tout le monde si vous voulez connaître le monde où nous vivons et pourquoi ils se comportent d'une certaine manière, en somme, que nous sommes et je pense que nous le pensons, et surtout, comme nous avons tendance nos pièges propres réflexions qui conduisent à l'échec ou de victoire. J'y ai trouvé une source sur l'état actuel de la pratique clinique des psychologues dans les Etats-Unis et il semble que laisse beaucoup à désirer. Premièrement, elle ne nécessite pas un examen spécial de la science et la langue d'admission aux écoles de la psychologie si l'on prend en considération les carences dans l'enseignement des sciences et de la lecture dans le système scolaire américain "condition sine qua non" pensée clinique sur un patient aucun crédit. Deuxièmement, parce que, contrairement au Canada et dans d'autres pays aux États-Unis, ces professionnels ne disposent pas de valider le titre tous les trois ans sous la supervision de psychiatres et de neurologues. Troisièmement, parce que 90% des connaissances au sujet de. Fonctionnement du cerveau ont été découvertes dans ces dix dernières années, exige que toute personne qui a à voir avec le traitement clinique a mis à jour crédit universitaire scientifique, même si nous savons que le type de nourriture que nous mangeons (alimentation) influe sur le comportement
(1).-A. November Neuroscience for Kids Newsletter was archivedhttp://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/news1311.htmlB. January 2010 Neurocalendarhttp://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/pdf/jan10.pdfC. Brain Awareness Week Jigsaw Puzzleshttp://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/jigbaw.htmlhttp://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/jigkey.html
(2).-Sharon Begley
Ignoring the EvidenceWhy do psychologists reject science?
Published Oct 2, 2009
From the magazine issue dated Oct 12, 2009http://www.newsweek.com/id/216506

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