Sunday, September 13, 2009

Africa and sub-sahara in the caribbean languages.University of Guayana.

A note about the linguistic influence in the caribbean area:
For me as an author on the topic of Caribbean identity onto the linguistic problem with this event of the University of Guyana that we show above published in the "Staebrok News" of Guyana is demostrated, while not fully studied, that we need an interdisciplinary international conference about spoken caribbean linguistic and literature because, is evident in the poetic literature, for example, of the Dominican poet Victor Villegas, National Award, and the cuban writer Lezama Lima the influences of the Peking Opera in the Spanish -African trunk and the french(creole) and english language contextual reference.

More than a creole we would had been considered the speech in the caribbean, perhaps, it would be better we considered about how the structures of communication match every spoken language in the caribbean vinculated to dance and painting and became to have influence in the literature it does not matter in what language you write or took in a more wider semantic conception of the language, than the linguistic-phonetic normative, as a process of communication. Ref --Ensayos sobre la poesía de Víctor VillegasWilson Jay, Marino,Gualterio Nunez Estrada 1946- ( 2000 ) ( Book, Periodical, Manuscript ) Source: Library of Congress Online Catalog, Libraries and Archives of Canada, Biblioteca Nacional de Cuba, Universidad de Santo Domingo.



"(...)Allsopp (Prof. Richard Allsopp, University of Guyana, author of "Oxford 1996 Caribbean Dictionaire(*))was a main contributor to the affirmation of the theory that Caribbean creoles are derived more from African languages, grammar and syntax and African linguistic ‘concepts’ than merely from imperfect attempts to speak English. He was an ardent researcher into the African origins of volumes of words used in Caribbean Creoles. Words such as ‘jook’ and ‘nyam’ belong to African languages, while terms like ‘cut-eye’ and ‘eye water’ apply English words to linguistic characteristics belonging to sub-Saharan African languages.

Allsopp’s A Book of Afric Caribbean Proverbs"(+) may also be seen in this context since it traces the African origins of much of Caribbean oral literature and especially proverbs. He points out that there is no comparable volume of proverbs and folk tales surviving from any of the Indian or Chinese cultures.

(Celebrating two Caribbean icons
Posted By Al Creighton On September 13, 2009 @ 5:07 am In Features, Sunday
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Arts On Sunday Link from Guayana newspaper:http://www.stabroeknews.com/2009/features/09/13/celebrating-two-caribbean-icons/)





REFERENCES ABOUT THE QUOTATION CITED FROM THE GUYANA NEWSPAPER" STABROEK NEWS":
(*)
Review:
Allsopp, Richard. (Ed.). 1996. Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage. New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 697, lxxviii. (With a French and Spanish supplement edited by J.E. Allsopp, 669-97). Published in: Caribbean Studies, 30 (1), 2002, 274-277.

Over 25 years in the making, the Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage (DCEU) is a monumental lexicographical effort consisting of 657 pages dedicated to the explanation of over 20,000 words and phrases derived from tape recorded speech and over 1,000 written sources collected in 22 English-speaking Caribbean territories. It is destined to be a much consulted volume in the libraries of creolists, researchers of World Englishes, and most important, teachers of English in the Caribbean.
Editor Richard Allsopp, retired professor of English Language and Linguistics at the University of West Indies, Barbados campus, specifies the immediate goal of the DCEU as the preparation of “a careful account of what is current, at least as an available basis for intra-regional intelligence...a descriptive work...that reliably itemizes the environmental data and details the current life-style agenda of the English-speaking Caribbean” (xxv). He accomplishes this via an intricate system in which entries are ordered as follows: first, the headword with syllabic divisions, followed by related forms, variant forms, pronunciation (given in modified IPA symbols), pitch-contour or tone-pattern, part of speech, syntactic function, territorial label (when the entry is found in six or more territories, it is given a general label of CarA, Caribbean Area), status label (level of formality), allonyms (other designations in other territories), subject label (context of gloss), gloss (often encyclopedic in form), illustrative citation (from oral or written sources), etymology (when available), usage notes, and phrases.
The DCEU makes interesting reading, beginning with Allsopp’s thorough and informative introduction which gives a historical overview of the Caribbean territories, an account of earlier lexicographic projects in the area, and a report on the fieldwork methodology utilized in the preparation of the dictionary and the intellectual and logistical problems encountered in the same. Perhaps the most compelling part of this introduction is the section titled: “The work as cultural agent,” in which Allsopp declares that: “the DCEU should be an inward and spiritual operator of regional integration even more powerful as a signal of unity than a national flag would be” (xxxi). He goes on to state that: “The weight of evidence supplied in this work should provide sufficient ground to build Caribbean pride to replace the earlier colonial shamefacedness and inhibitions bedevilling this region” (xxxi).
The introduction is followed by an equally fascinating section titled: “Caribbean English,” in which Allsopp explores the historical development of the Caribbean varieties, probing the many linguistic stocks that contributed to the distinctive lexicon of the different territories. He introduces the term “allonym” to describe the different names or labels established in different areas for the same referent. He also describes the general phonological, morphological, syntactic, and etymological characteristics of Caribbean English. Finally, he addresses the problematic issues of standard, accepted, and formal language, and gives the following (sure to be quoted) definition of Caribbean Standard English:
The literate English of educated nationals of Caribbean territories and their spoken English such as is considered natural in formal social contexts. There being many such territories, each with its own recognizable ‘standard’, Caribbean Standard English would be the total body of regional lexicon and usage bound to a common core of syntax and morphology shared with Internationally Accepted English, but aurally distinguished as a discrete type by certain phonological features such as a marked levelling of British English diphthongs and a characteristic disconnection of pitch from stress as compared with British and American sound patterns (lvi).

In addition to these significant essays, the DCEU contains very useful sections dedicated to defining linguistic terminology, explaining the layout and functioning of the volume, and glossing the abbreviations and symbols used. It closes with a listing of the citation codes for bibliographical references used in the dictionary and a useful supplement (prepared by Jeannette Allsopp) of French and Spanish equivalents for common items of flora and fauna listed in the main body of the work.
Browsing through the dictionary is like tasting a new food which is seemingly familiar yet tantalizingly exotic in its nuances. Among the terms which personally intrigued this reviewer were: abolition payment (severance pay), AfroSaxon (a black person who apes white ways), afternoon (buttocks), break biche (play hooky), bring-and-carry (gossip), cut language good (to speak a language well), eye-water (tears), moo-moo (shy or stupid person), Nebuary morning (never), nowherian (person with no religious affiliation, homeless person), pania (Belizean person of Spanish descent), payol (Trinidadian version of previous term), raw English (unpolished speech), stocious (attractive, snobbish), and unbutton your teeth (speak).
The DCEU is not without its limitations. Among these are the geographic boundaries imposed by the editor. Allsopp includes only territories that were once British colonies (with the exception of the U.S. Virgin Islands), despite the fact that English is spoken (in standard and creolized varieties) by sizeable populations in other Caribbean areas like Puerto Rico, Nicaragua, and Panama. There are also problems with the rather artificial association of lexical entries with “acrolectal,” “basilectal,” and “mesolectal” varieties. In addition, creolists seeking “deeper creole” forms will be disappointed as the DCEU purposefully avoids such entries or relegates them to “Anti-formal” usage, labelled as “jocular,” “derogatory,” or “vulgar.
However, these limitations are greatly outweighed by the overall excellence of the volume. A particularly important contribution is the substantiation of a strong sub-Saharan African origin for many compound words and idiomatic phrases in Caribbean English which have proven to be calques or folk translations of African ways of putting things. Allsopp argues that since in countless examples Caribbean Anglophone idioms are directly matched by Caribbean Francophone equivalents which could not have resulted from contact among speakers, therefore they must have had a common ancestor in the Niger-Congo family of languages. Allsopp views this discovery as sending “a strong message of genetic relationship among the sub-Saharan African languages, a message from the Caribbean of a oneness of African cultures from the Akan to the Zulu” (xxxiv). This is certainly a thought-provoking notion that should stimulate further international linguistic research that goes beyond the surface level of merely identifying African loanwords in the Caribbean.

Reviewed by:
Dr. Alicia Pousada
English Department, College of Humanities
University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras
(+)
Product DescriptionThis book brings together a selection of about 1300 Anglophone Creole proverbs preserved as the guidance-lore of the millions of enslaved forebears of today's Caribbean Afric peoples - the author s preferred term for all international peoples of the African diaspora. Their ways of thought and expression, characterized by the common orality and life-ways of the sub-Saharan cultures from which they had been uprooted, surfaced in parallel imagery in the similarly structured Creoles which, across the region, they had invented out of the conceptual rootstock of original African languages. That imagery flourishes in their proverbs. A proverb is described "as a gem of utterance sparkling with a message that the hearer would like to remember, and therefore probably retains, in that form", and this collection seeks first respectfully to recognize wisdom in the powerful simplicity of the proverbs in their Creole form. Each is then followed by a restatement in Standard English for clarification or pedagogical use, a rendering in rhymed verse for the reader 's entertainment,and further explanatory notes - the whole making an enlightening, perhaps new road in the literature of orality. Many popular collections of Caribbean territorial proverbs exist and continue to be produced, but this collection, apart from its greater coverage is likely to be the first scholarly cross-referencing of the entire Anglophone field of Caribbean proverbs in some 22 territories from Guyana to the Bahamas and Belize. About the AuthorDr Richard Allsopp, creator of the Caribbean Lexicography Project at the University of the West Indies at Cave Hill, Barbados, and its Director since 1971, retired as Reader in English Language and Linguistics in 1990, and has continued his pioneering work in Caribbean Lexicography since then. Guyanese Crane Gold Medallist and author of some 70 published articles in scholarly journals and books, his major publication is the Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage (1996), and it is out of the mass of data personally collected for that dictionary throughout the Caribbean, over a period of more than 20 years, that the present collection of proverbs was taken.
Product Details
Perfect Paperback: 272 pages
Publisher: Arawak publications (October 1, 2004)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 9768189061
ISBN-13: 978-9768189066
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Allsopp(Pro. Richard Allsopp, University of Guyana, autor del Dictionario del Caribe Oxford 1996*) era un principal contribuyente a la afirmación de la teoría de que los idiomas creoles del Caribe se derivan más de las lenguas africanas, la gramática y la sintaxis y lingüística de África "conceptos" que simplemente imperfecciones de los intentos de hablar Inglés por los naturales. El fue un investigador apasionado sobre los orígenes africanos de los sintagmas de las palabras utilizadas en los criollos del Caribe. Palabras tales como 'jook' y 'nyam' pertenecen a las lenguas africanas, mientras que términos como "reducción de ojos 'y' ojo de agua" se aplican las palabras Inglés a las características lingüísticas que pertenecen a las lenguas africanas subsaharianas.En la obra de Allsopp "Libro de los Proverbios Africanos del Caribe" también se puede observar en este contexto, ya que rastrea los orígenes africanos de gran parte de la literatura oral y el Caribe, especialmente proverbios. Señala que no hay volumen comparable de los proverbios y los cuentos populares ya que no existen proverbios sobrevivientes de ninguna de las culturas indígenas o de China.

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